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When a test team begins writing software to test software, a funny question comes up: "Who tests the tests " The question is easy to ignore, but it pays to answer it. A tremendous amount of coding effort goes into writing test code, and that code is susceptible to the same sorts of mistakes that occur in product code. In a number of ways, running the tests and examining failures are a test for the tests, but that approach can still miss many bugs in test code. One effective method for finding bugs in test code (or any code, for that matter) is to use tools for automatic static analysis. Static analysis tools examine the source code or binary and identify many classes of errors without actually executing the code.
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A number of different tools are available for analysis of native code (that is, code written in C or C++). Traditional tools include commercial products such as PC-Lint, [2] KlocWork, [3] and Coverity, [4] as well as the static Code Analyzer included with Visual Studio Team System. Every team at Microsoft uses code analysis tools. Since 2001, the primary tool used at Microsoft for native code analysis is a tool named PREfast. This is the same tool available for native code analysis in Visual Studio Team System. PREfast scans source code, one function at a time, and looks for coding patterns and incorrect code usage that can indicate a programming error. When PREfast finds an error, it displays a defect warning and provides the line number of the offending source code, as shown in Figure 12-6.
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Figure 12-6: Static analysis warnings in Visual Studio using PREfast. Watching Out for Broken Windows In the classic book The Pragmatic Programmer, the authors discuss the broken window theory [5] and its relation to a concept of software entropy where small errors left unfixed breed additional errors. [6] When a team first begins running code analysis tools, they are inevitably overwhelmed with the number of potential issues they need to investigate. A giant challenge facing teams is that even the best of these tools report some amount of false positives. As mentioned in 10, "Test Automation," false positives are errors reported by a tool or test that are not the result of a problem in the program or
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code. When the code analysis tools are reporting hundreds or thousands of errors, these false reports only muddy the water. A few years ago, I was in charge of deploying our static analysis toolset and reporting results. The code base was huge, so I left the decisions on which reported defects to investigate up to the various development managers on the team. We knew that, eventually, we wanted to investigate and fix all of the errors reported by our analysis tools, but the short-term strategy was up to management. We fixed all of the critical errors (ignoring the false positives) and released a new version of the product later that year. A few months later, one of the developers was investigating an issue reported by a customer. The issue required some unique conditions and ended up taking nearly an entire day to debug. I remember the developer walking into my office early that evening and saying, "I have some good news, and some bad news. The good news is that I found the bug and know how to fix it. The bad news is that our static analysis tools also found the bug, and discovered it three months ago." We brought in a few other developers to talk about the issue and discovered that our tools found dozens of errors in this particular component. They weren't ignored completely, but the developer had looked at a few of the errors, recognized them as false positives, and ignored the rest of the errors in the component. We learned some lessons from this experience. We made sure that developers knew how to safely suppress false alarm warnings, and then we required that at least two developers review all suppressed false positives before concluding that the error should be suppressed. We fixed (or suppressed) all of the reported issues and added additional verification to our check-in system to ensure that the code base stayed clean. It's hard to tell how many potential customer issues we prevented, but we were all confident that fixing our broken windows was a good investment.
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