vb.net code 39 barcode Auditor This role is responsible for maintaining and configuring CA audit logs. To in Visual Studio .NET

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Auditor This role is responsible for maintaining and configuring CA audit logs. To
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assign this role, assign the user or group the Manage auditing and security log user right in either the Local Security Policy or in a GPO linked to the OU where the CA computer account exists.
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Backup operator This role is responsible for performing backups of PKI information. To assign this role, assign the user or group the Backup files and directories user right in either the Local Security Policy or in a GPO linked to the OU where the CA computer account exists.
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Windows Server 2008, Enterprise Edition, and Windows Server 2008, Datacenter Edition, enable you to enforce Common Criteria role separation so that a single person cannot hold multiple Common Criteria roles. A user can hold only one of the CA administrator, certificate manager, auditor, or backup operator roles. Assignment of two or more of these roles results in the user being blocked from all certificate management actions. By default, members of the Enterprise Admins, forest root Domain Admins, and local Administrators group on the CA are blocked from PKI management if you enable role
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Implementing Active Directory Certificate Services
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separation. The block occurs because these groups hold both the Auditor and Backup operator roles through default permission assignments. Note
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Common Criteria role separation enforcement is enabled by a local Administrator running certutil setreg CA\RoleSeparationEnabled 1 at the command prompt and then restarting Certificate Services. Remember that any user who is assigned two or more certificate administrative roles will be blocked from all CA management activities from that point forward, unless you disable the enforcement of Common Criteria role separation by running certutil delreg CA\RoleSeparationEnabled and then restarting Certificate Services.
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Unauthorized Recovery of a User s Private Key from the CA Database
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Windows Server 2008 provides the ability to archive, or escrow, the private key associated with a user s encryption certificates if the CA is running on Windows Server 2008, Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2008, Datacenter Edition. An attacker could acquire any user s certificate and private key from the CA database if the attacker is both a local administrator and an existing Key Recovery Agent at the CA computer where the user s private key is archived. If the attacker gains access to the user s private key, the attacker can decrypt any information protected with the recovered certificate. In addition, if the certificate enables signing, the attacker can impersonate the user the user for digital signing operations. You can prevent this attack by separating certificate managers from key recovery agents. Doing this has the following result:
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The Certificate Manager role holder determines who the Key Recovery Agent is for the archived private key and extracts an encrypted PKCS#7 blob file from the CA database. Only the certificate manager role holder can perform this extraction of the blob file. The Key Recovery Agent role holder can decrypt the encrypted blob file with the Key Recovery Agent certificate s private key. Only the Key Recovery Agent has access to the private key that can decrypt the encrypted blob file.
An administrator cannot make herself a Key Recovery Agent for existing escrowed certificates. The Key Recovery Agent is designated at the time the private key is archived. As long as the private key is protected (such as by storing the private key on a smart card), an administrator cannot gain access to the private key.
Securing Certificate Services
To further prevent the likelihood of the different types of threats described previously, you can take the following measures:
Implement physical security measures. Implement logical security measures.
Part II:
Implementing Identity and Access (IDA) Control Using Active Directory
Implementing Physical Security Measures
Physical security measures prevent attackers from gaining physical access to the computer running Active Directory Certificate Services. When an attacker gains physical access to a computer, any number of attacks can take place. Physical security measures can include the following:
Use off-line CAs. By creating a three-tier hierarchy, the root CA and second-level CAs (also referred to as policy CAs) can be off-line CAs that are not accessible remotely or even turned on. With a two-tier hierarchy, only the root CA can be an off-line CA. An off-line CA is removed from the network and is turned on only to issue new subordinate CA certificates, renew subordinate CA certificates, and to publish updated CRLs. Even during these operations, it is not connected to the network and does not need to leave its secure storage location. The certificates and CRLs can be hand-carried to the place where they will be deployed. Store off-line CAs in physically secure locations, such as vaults, safes, or secured server rooms, based on your company s security policy. Deploy hardware-based key modules, such as hardware security modules (HSMs), for the generation and protection of the CA key pair and for the signing of all issued certificates and CRLs. HSMs enable you to implement split key management, where a quorum of key holders must be present to activate and use an off-line CA s private key. For example, you can designate that any attempts to access a root CA s private key require the presentation of 4 tokens from a total pool of 11 tokens, each held by a separate physical person. Implement BitLocker Drive Encryption (BDE) to protect the root CA s hard drive in the event that the hard drive is removed from the CA computer for an attempted off-line attack. BitLocker also prevents access to the local computer if the person at the console cannot provide the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) password or BDE recovery key on a USB token.
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