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Securing the Network
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However, several different kinds of dependencies are relevant to a network, and in this section I will introduce them and discuss how to mitigate them using standard analysis techniques and actual implementation of these techniques in Windows Server 2008.
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The first and simplest kind of dependency is a usage dependency. A usage dependency results from usage of computing resources and data in a manner inconsistent with the trust levels of those resources. The first scenario in this chapter the removable device is an example of a usage dependency. A user that uses a removable device creates a usage dependency on that device. Whenever a user at one trust level uses a resource at a different trust level there are potential usage dependencies. There are other kinds of usage dependencies as well. One great example is usage of a single credential in multiple places. For instance, suppose your network is divided into a datacenter forest and a corporate forest. All the users in the datacenter forest also have accounts in the corporate forest. The likelihood that at least one user will have the same user name and password on both of these accounts is extremely high. Yet this violates the entire purpose of having the two forests, which is to ensure that a compromise in one forest does not result in a compromise of another. By using the same password in both places, this particular user has opened a potential pathway between the two. An attacker that breaches a computer in one forest that this user is using can extract the password hash and use it to authenticate to resources in the other forest.
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Virtually every computer system in existence today accepts password authentication in at least some situations. On Windows Server 2008 as well as previous server versions of Windows you can configure a domain to require smart cards for authentication from one or more users. However, as you saw in 2, Authenticators and Authentication Protocols, even when you do so, there will still be a password hash for the user. This hash is transmitted to the client each time the user authenticates to enable automatic access to NTLM-protected resources. This means that an attacker that has access to this hash can access network resources as this user. For more information on this, see 2.
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An access-based dependency occurs when a user at one trust level accesses a resource in a way that makes the user dependent on the security of that resource. Access-based dependencies result from the access itself, not from usage of a resource or computing construct. Many times they rely on one user or entity trusting another entity that has a security problem.
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For example, suppose user Alice accesses a network resource. The network resource is on the server LOKE, which, unknown to Alice, was hacked by Bob earlier that same day. Bob has installed a rootkit on the server that causes authentication to be downgraded to an insecure form of authentication. Alice s computer is running Windows XP, which by default is configured to negotiate authentication to whatever the server and client can agree upon. In doing so, Alice sends a challenge-response sequence that the attacker can replay against Alice s computer, thereby gaining access to her computer with the same privileges she has. To understand this flow, look at Figure 13-3, which shows a normal authentication flow from a client to a server.
Flow 1 : Connection Initation
Flow 3 : Client-Response
LOKE
Flow 2 : Client-Challenge
AlicePC
Alice
Figure 13-3 A normal challenge response flow from a client to a server.
In the normal flow a client initiates a connection to the server. The server responds with a challenge. The client creates a response to the challenge by performing a cryptographic operation with the authenticator (typically a password hash) and the challenge and returns this as the response. The server performs the same computation and compares the results. If they match, the authentication succeeds. Now consider Figure 13-4. In this case the client does not respond as it should. In Figure 13-4 the client attempts to connect as before. At this point, the server is supposed to send a challenge back. However, the server instead responds with its own connection
13:
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