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Suppose a user visits your Web site, and notices the following URL in the Address box:
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http://www.contoso.com/public/index.html
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A natural curiosity kicks in: What do I get if I access any similar URLs
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http://www.contoso.com/public/ http://www.contoso.com/
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When the Web was being built, it seemed natural to emulate some of the protocols around at the time: FTP, Gopher, and so on. In clients for these protocols, if you were not looking at a file, you were looking at a directory listing. As a result, the Web servers of old would generate a page that listed the contents of a directory. In general, it is more advisable these days to reduce the temptation for browsers to go outside of the URLs displayed on hosted pages, and as a result, the directory browsing feature is disabled. When a client visits a URL that represents a directory, the Web server returns a page with a fixed name that exists in that directory. IIS 7 is no different in this respect. Visiting a directory with directory browsing disabled (the default) results in the display of whichever of the following files it finds in the target directory first:
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Default.htm Default.asp index.htm index.html iisstart.htm default.aspx
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Part III:
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Common Security Scenarios
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You can add or remove these elements in the IIS Manager at the server, site, or virtual directory level by opening the feature Default Document. You can also set this in the XML configuration (in the Web server s applicationHost.config, or in the Web site, application, or virtual directory s web.config file) in the following section:
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<configuration> <system.webServer> <defaultDocument enabled="true/false"> <files> <add value="file1"/> <add value="file2"/> </files> </defaultDocument>
The defaultDocument element has one attribute only enabled which can be true or false, and the defaultDocument/files element can contain elements with the usual names (add, remove, and clear) to control the list of files in the collection, as shown in the preceding example. You are advised to keep to a server-wide list of default documents, because this is the list of documents that will be tried and displayed if the requested URL is to a directory. Relying on the presence of a default document higher in the list to mask the presence of one lower in the list is likely to fail in the event that someone moves or renames one of the default files. If you prefer the behavior of displaying a list of the files in a directory when a directory is requested and no default document is found, you can open and enable the Directory Browsing feature from the IIS Manager, or enable it in the web.config file at the following path:
<configuration> <system.webServer> <directoryBrowse enabled="true/false"/>
Authentication and Authorization
When creating a Web server, the first consideration, after What content shall we host is generally To whom shall we provide that content The concept of choosing which users are allowed access to which content rests on the foundation of a good authentication mechanism. As befits an Internet standard, HTTP has many client authentication mechanisms to choose from, with varying benefits and drawbacks. The authentication methods available with IIS 7 as shipped are Anonymous, Basic, Client Certificate Mapping, Digest, Forms, and Windows Integrated. (See 4, Authenticators and Authentication Protocols, for additional descriptions of some of these methods.) Of these methods, Anonymous, Basic, Client Certificate Mapping, Digest, and Forms authentication are all based on Internet standard documents and will work with multiple browsers. Some browsers other than Internet Explorer may not support Windows Integrated Authentication. Only Anonymous Authentication is enabled by default.
16:
Securing Server Applications
All access by IIS to resources served by the Web server is governed by Windows NTFS permissions. This means that all access is through a local user ID, with associated groups. It is important to distinguish between the security context that the user believes he has, and the security context that the server is using to serve that user s access. A good example is Anonymous Authentication, which by default is associated with the IUSR account for the purpose of controlling what files and resources are accessible. Although authentication settings are enabled, disabled, and defined at the server, Web site, or virtual directory level, most of their configuration settings are stored in the server-wide applicationHost.config file, under the following section:
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