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There is also a SID, NTLM Authentication, which defines that the user logged on using NTLM, as opposed to Kerberos. We also have the This Organization SID, which means the user is defined in the same organization as the computer account. Obviously this SID will always be present on a stand-alone computer. Finally, we see the None SID. This is not actually a SID that is being used. Its Relative Identifier (RID) is 513, which makes it Domain Users. It shows up on non-domain-joined computers (as in this example) as a kind of place holder for the Domain Users SID.
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Access Check Process
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When a process attempts to access a securable object, the operating system compares the access token to first the DACL and then (if it is present) the SACL on the object. The comparison with the DACL focuses on three factors:
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The requested access (for example, read, write, execute, delete) The SIDs in the token The ACEs in the object s DACL
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The comparison process starts by evaluating any SIDs set to Deny in the token. If any of those match a SID in a deny ACE, the operating system compares the requested access to the access mask in the ACE. If any bits show up as set to 1 in both, the access attempt is denied at that point with no further comparison. If there are no matches on Deny SIDs, the process continues by evaluating each ACE in turn. Three possible stopping conditions will cause the evaluation to cease. First, the evaluation stops as soon as any ACE or combination of ACEs grants any combination of SIDs in the token all the requested access. If this happens, the access is granted. Second, if any deny ACE is encountered that denies any SID in the token any of the requested access rights, the evaluation stops and the access attempt is denied. Finally, if the end of the ACL is encountered, the evaluation stops. If it reaches this point without having all the requested access rights granted by some ACE, the access attempt is denied. Regardless of how the access check turns out, the operating system then evaluates the SACL, if present, to see if an audit even should be generated. As you can probably tell from what we just said about the access check, the order in which the ACEs are evaluated is critical. If you have a deny ACE that denies the user access to the object, but an ACE matching some SID in the user s token grants all the requested access rights is encountered first, the evaluation will stop and the access attempt is granted. For this reason ACEs should be stored in an ACL in a defined order: 1. Noninherited deny ACEs 2. Noninherited allow ACEs
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Objects: The Stuff You Want
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3. Inherited deny ACEs 4. Inherited allow ACEs Various tools, such as ACL UI, will correctly put the ACEs in this order. They will also fix an out-of-order ACL when they open it. In addition, the icacls.exe command-line tool contains a /verify option that you can use to verify that ACLs are in the right canonical form. However, the operating system contains no automatic enforcement of this order, and it is disturbingly common for developers to create ACLs that have ACEs in the wrong order. This can cause access attempts that should be denied to be granted. You should also note that if explicitly defined allow ACEs grant a user access, those will take precedence over inherited deny ACEs. This has caused confusion among administrators in the past.
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The standard access check can be modified in a few ways. One is if the user has a privilege that permits overriding the access check. For example, a user with the right to back up files can bypass any ACL for read purposes, while a user with the right to restore files can bypass any ACL for write purposes. Another method, which is used quite a bit more in Windows Vista and Server 2008 than in the past, is using restricted tokens. A restricted token is created using the CreateRestrictedToken application programming interface (API). If a process presents an access token that is restricted, the operating system performs two separate access checks. The first access check is the normal one and ensures that the ACL on the object grants all the access methods requested to some combination of the SIDs in the token. The second access check works exactly the same way, but checks the ACL only against the restricting SIDs. To understand how this works, assume an access token has Administrators as a regular SID, and Users as a restricted SID. Further, assume we have an object that grants Administrators: Full and Users: Read. If a process with such a token tries to open the object for Read and Execute, the access attempt will fail because the access check must pass against the restricting SID the Users SID. In this case, Users only has Read, and the access attempt was for Read and Execute. Restricted tokens include a special SID: S-1-5-12 if it is a normal restricted token and S-1-5-33 if it is a write-restricted token, as shown in Figure 3-12. Normal restricted tokens have been around for a long time. In Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, a new variant called the writerestricted token was introduced. With a write-restricted access token, the second access check is performed only for write access checks. Let us assume that the token in our previous example was write-restricted, not just restricted. In that case the access would still pass, because the second access check would not be performed (the access attempt was not for a write operation). Now assume the access attempt was for Read and Write instead. In that case a write-restricted access token would cause the access attempt to fail because now the second access check fails because Users is write-restricted, and Users only have Read permission on the object.
Part I:
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