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The resulting output is rendered using SDDL. Add the optional showrights parameter to assist with converting the SDDL output more easily understood access control entries. You can, of course, see the set permissions using the normal Windows GUIs and using Process Explorer, as well.
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A service has three valid SID types:
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A SID type of None means the service has no service-specific SID. It can be used for legacy services with application compatibility issues. A SID type of Unrestricted indicates that the service has a service-specific SID that can be used for access control and that SID is added to the service s process token. A SID type of Restricted is used to explicitly enforce additional access control on the service. For more information on Restricted tokens, please see 3, Objects: The Stuff You Want. When a service is marked with a SID type of Restricted, the service s own SID is added to the restricted SID list of the process token along with three additional SIDs:
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Everyone SID (S-1-1-0) Log-on SID (S-1-5-5-0-64163) Write Restricted SID (S-1-5-33)
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When a service attempts to write to a resource, if it contains the Write Restricted SID in its access token, the access will be prevented unless the Everyone group, the write-restricted SID,
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or one of the service SIDs is explicitly granted write permissions. Most securable objects do not allow write permissions using those SIDs, so most writes are prevented by default. The idea is if a malicious attack is able to take control of a write-restricted service, the areas they can write to on the system (such as System32) are limited and complicated. Unfortunately, only a handful of services are marked as write restricted. You can view a service s SID type by running the Sc.exe command with the qsidtype command-line parameter (see Figure 6-14) or use Process Explorer. The Sc.exe syntax is:
sc.exe qsidtype [service name]
Figure 6-14 Using Sc.exe qsidtype to reveal a service s SIDType.
A good example of how the WRITE RESTRICTED SID is used is with Windows Firewall. By its very nature, Windows Firewall is exposed to incoming malicious attacks. Windows places the four cooperative Windows Firewall services Windows Firewall (Mpssvc), Base Filtering Engine (Bfe), Diagnostic Policy Service (Dps), and Performance Logs and Alerts (Pla) under one Svchost.exe instance. All services are marked as write-restricted and contain the WRITE RESTRICTED SID (Figure 6-15). Using the Icacls.exe /t /findsid NT AUTHORITY\WRITE RESTRICTED command you can locate what securable objects have explicit permissions for the Write Restricted SID. In my test system, the Icacls.exe query returned two files related to Windows security configuration that the services could write to. You can set a service s SID type by using the sc sidtype command. The syntax is:
sc.exe sidtype [servicename] <none | restricted | unrestricted>
SID type changes will not take effect until the service starts or restarts. End users and administrators should be cautioned against changing SID types without testing and understanding the repercussions. Note
There is a RESTRICTED SID that is more restrictive than the WRITE RESTRICTED SID, because it prevents reads as well as writes.
Part I:
Windows Security Fundamentals
Figure 6-15 Process Explorer showing a write-restricted SID on a service.
Restricted Network Access
You can now restrict network access by service name (or SID) and limit it by port, protocol, or network. The improved Windows Firewall With Advanced Security will allow an administrator to define rules for any service over three profiles (Public, Private, and Domain). Windows Server 2008 comes with dozens of predefined rules. Many of the rules apply to services. Sometimes a rule applies to all programs and services, and sometimes they only apply to a specific service (see Figure 6-16 for an example) or set of services.
Figure 6-16 Service-based firewall rule.
6:
Services
Windows Server 2008 comes with the Windows Firewall enabled by default, and more than 170 inbound rules and more than 80 outbound rules enabled (see Figure 6-17).
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