vb.net code 39 generator in vb.net Figure 6-17 Example listing of Windows Firewall rules protecting services. in .NET

Encoding Code 128 Code Set B in .NET Figure 6-17 Example listing of Windows Firewall rules protecting services.

Figure 6-17 Example listing of Windows Firewall rules protecting services.
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Most firewall rules deal with Windows services, restricting what connections can reach them and where on the network they can contact. Each rule can be customized or disabled, and of course, administrators can define new rules to cover new or existing services. As you can with any Windows Firewall rule, you can also require IPsec to be used with encryption and/or authentication before a connection is established. You can also establish rules by using scripting. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 also include more than 80 predefined outbound rules, enabled by default. You can see a list of the rules at HKLM\System\ CurrentControlSet\Services\SharedAccess\Parameters\FirewallPolicy\ RestrictedServices\static (see Figure 6-18).
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Figure 6-18 A sample of static service firewall rules.
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The rules are not visible in a normal GUI because they should not be modified. If you need to add rules for custom services, the right way is using COM scripting tools. See http:// blogs.technet.com/voy/archive/2007/04/02/network-restrictions-for-service-hardening.aspx for more details and scripting examples. The rules are considered static because they apply whether or not the firewall is enabled and over all three firewall profiles. Also, they can only be used to restrict access, not to grant it. Microsoft s new focus on extending domain isolation to services will only increase the resilience of Windows to network attacks. Several attacks, including the Blaster worm, would have been prevented or minimized had these firewall rules been in effect at the time. Also, if someone tells you that Windows Firewall doesn t have any outbound blocking turned on by default, you can show them the dozens of rules in effect by default.
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Session 0 Isolation
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At the beginning of this chapter I mentioned that all services run in Session 0 on Windows. All user mode applications and programs do not. This serves to prevent users and the programs they run (which might be malware) from easily modifying core services. Since roughly 86 percent of all Windows vulnerabilities reported over the last few years require an end user to be socially engineered into executing code on the desktop (http://www.infoworld.com/article/ 07/10/19/42OPsecadvise-insider-threats_1.html), service session isolation is a very good thing. The one potential downside to Session 0 Isolation is the fact that legacy services expecting to directly interact with the end user can no longer display messages and prompts. Without some sort of shim, a legacy service would display its service message in Session 0, where the end user cannot read it. Microsoft included the Interactive Services Detection (ui0detect) service to allow legacy services to communicate to interactive end users. When started (it is not started by default) the service will detect services trying to communicate with the user and alert the logged-on interactive user. Microsoft has publicly stated that the Ui0detect service is a temporary shim and will be going away in the future. Vendors need to recode their services to communicate to users in different sessions using RPC, COM, Named Pipes, or other communication methods. Find more details on Session 0 Isolation at http:// www.microsoft.com/whdc/system/vista/services.mspx.
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All services by default have the System mandatory integrity level. (See 2, for more detail on integrity levels.) Figure 6-19 shows the labels on several services. Only the TrustedInstaller mandatory integrity level is higher. This allows Windows, using the TrustedInstaller service, to upgrade, install, remove, and replace services, while minimizing the chance that other processes and users can modify services.
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Data Execution Prevention
As Figure 6-19 also shows, most services are protected with Data Execution Prevention (DEP) and ASLR. DEP mitigates many different types of buffer overflows by attempting to prevent
6:
Services
Figure 6-19 Process Explorer showing service attributes.
nonexecutable memory areas from executing program instructions.. Both DEP and ASLR make it harder for a buffer overflow to find the actual function addresses. Both security mechanisms prevent some types of malicious attacks, and have been successful in putting down other attacks that were successful on previous Windows platforms. Neither can stop all malicious attacks. Developers creating services should make sure their services utilize DEP and ASLR.
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