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Listing 9-31. CTE code that creates nested sets relationships
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DECLARE @root AS INT; SET @root = 1; -- CTE with two numbers: 1 and 2 WITH TwoNumsCTE AS ( SELECT 1 AS n UNION ALL SELECT 2 ), -- CTE with two binary sort paths for each node: -One smaller than descendants sort paths -One greater than descendants sort paths SortPathCTE AS ( SELECT empid, 0 AS lvl, n, CAST(n AS VARBINARY(MAX)) AS sortpath FROM dbo.Employees CROSS JOIN TwoNumsCTE WHERE empid = @root UNION ALL SELECT C.empid, P.lvl + 1, TN.n, P.sortpath + CAST( (-1+ROW_NUMBER() OVER(PARTITION BY C.mgrid -- *** determines order of siblings *** ORDER BY C.empname, C.empid))/2*2+TN.n
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AS BINARY(4)) FROM SortPathCTE AS P JOIN dbo.Employees AS C ON P.n = 1 AND C.mgrid = P.empid CROSS JOIN TwoNumsCTE AS TN ), -- CTE with Row Numbers Representing sortpath Order SortCTE AS ( SELECT empid, lvl, ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY sortpath) AS sortval FROM SortPathCTE ), -- CTE with Left and Right Values Representing -- Nested Sets Relationships NestedSetsCTE AS ( SELECT empid, lvl, MIN(sortval) AS lft, MAX(sortval) AS rgt FROM SortCTE GROUP BY empid, lvl ) SELECT * FROM NestedSetsCTE ORDER BY lft;
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Table 9-43. Left and Right Values Generated with a CTE
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empid lvl lft rgt 1 2 5 8 10 4 6 3 7 11 9 0 1 2 3 3 2 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 6 9 28 13 8 5 7 10
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11 12 14 27 15 26 16 17 18 25
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empid lvl lft rgt 14 12 13 4 4 4 19 20 21 22 23 24
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The implementation of this algorithm in SQL Server 2000 is similar, but it's lengthier and slower, mainly because of the calculation of row numbers using identity values instead of the ROW_NUMBER function. You have to materialize interim results in a table to generate the identity values. For simplicity's sake, I'll show a solution with a UDF, where siblings are ordered by empname, empid. To create the fn_empsnestedsets UDF, run the code in Listing 9-32.
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Listing 9-32. Creation script for the fn_empsnestedsets function
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---------------------------------------------------------------------- Function: fn_empsnestedsets, Nested Sets Relationships --- Input : @root INT: Root of subtree --- Output : @NestedSets Table: employee id, level in the subtree, -left and right values representing -nested sets relationships --- Process : * Loads subtree into @SortPath, -first root, then a level at a time. -Note: two instances of each employee are loaded; -one representing left arm (n = 1), -and one representing right (n = 2). -For each employee and arm, a binary path is constructed, -representing the nested sets position. -The binary path has 4 bytes for each of the employee's -ancestors. For each ancestor, the 4 bytes represent -its position in the level (calculated with identity). -Finally @SortPath will contain a pair of rows for each -employee along with a sort path representing the arm's -nested sets position. -* Next, the rows from @SortPath are loaded -into @SortVals, sorted by sortpath. After the load, -an integer identity column sortval holds sort values -representing the nested sets position of each arm. -* The data from @SortVals is grouped by employee, -generating the left and right values for each employee -in one row. The result set is loaded into the -@NestedSets table, which is the function's output. ---------------------------------------------------------------------SET NOCOUNT ON; USE tempdb; GO IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.fn_empsnestedsets') IS NOT NULL DROP FUNCTION dbo.fn_empsnestedsets; GO
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CREATE FUNCTION dbo.fn_empsnestedsets(@root AS INT) RETURNS @NestedSets TABLE ( empid INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, lvl INT NOT NULL, lft INT NOT NULL, rgt INT NOT NULL ) AS BEGIN DECLARE @lvl AS INT; SET @lvl = 0; -- @TwoNums: Table Variable with two numbers: 1 and 2 DECLARE @TwoNums TABLE(n INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY); INSERT INTO @TwoNums(n) SELECT 1 AS n UNION ALL SELECT 2; -- @SortPath: Table Variable with two binary sort paths -- for each node: -One smaller than descendants sort paths -One greater than descendants sort paths DECLARE @SortPath TABLE ( empid INT NOT NULL, lvl INT NOT NULL, n INT NOT NULL, sortpath VARBINARY(900) NOT NULL, rownum INT NOT NULL IDENTITY, UNIQUE(lvl, n, empid) ); -- Load root into @SortPath INSERT INTO @SortPath(empid, lvl, n, sortpath) SELECT empid, @lvl, n, CAST(n AS BINARY(4)) AS sortpath FROM dbo.Employees CROSS JOIN @TwoNums WHERE empid = @root WHILE @@rowcount > 0 BEGIN SET @lvl = @lvl + 1; -- Load next level into @SortPath INSERT INTO @SortPath(empid, lvl, n, sortpath) SELECT C.empid, @lvl, TN.n, P.sortpath FROM @SortPath AS P JOIN dbo.Employees AS C ON P.lvl = @lvl - 1 AND P.n = 1 AND C.mgrid = P.empid CROSS JOIN @TwoNums AS TN -- *** Determines order of siblings *** ORDER BY C.empname, C.empid, TN.n; -- Update sort path to include child's position UPDATE @SortPath
SET sortpath = sortpath + CAST(rownum AS BINARY(4)) WHERE lvl = @lvl; END -- @SortVals: Table Variable with row numbers -- representing sortpath order DECLARE @SortVals TABLE ( empid INT NOT NULL, lvl INT NOT NULL, sortval INT NOT NULL IDENTITY ) -- Load data from @SortPath sorted by sortpath -- to generate sort values INSERT INTO @SortVals(empid, lvl) SELECT empid, lvl FROM @SortPath ORDER BY sortpath; -- Load data into @NestedSets, generating left and right -- values representing nested sets relationships INSERT INTO @NestedSets(empid, lvl, lft, rgt) SELECT empid, lvl, MIN(sortval), MAX(sortval) FROM @SortVals GROUP BY empid, lvl RETURN; END GO
To test the function, run the following code, which generates the output shown in Table 9-44: SELECT * FROM dbo.fn_empsnestedsets(1) ORDER BY lft;
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