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Trace Performance Workload
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You now need to define a trace that will help you identify processes that need to be tuned in the Performance database. When faced with such a need, there's a tendency to trace slow-running processes by filtering events where the Duration data column is greater than or equal to some value (say, 3000 milliseconds). This approach is problematic. Think of the following: You have a query that runs for about 30 seconds a couple of times a day, and another query that runs for a about half a second 40,000 times a day. Which would you say is more important to tune Obviously, the latter is more important, but if you filter only events that run for at least three seconds, you'll filter out the more important query to tune. In short, for our purposes you don't want to filter based on Duration at all. Of course, this means that you might get enormous amounts of trace data, so make sure you follow the guidelines I suggested earlier. You do want to filter only the databases that are relevant to your tuning process. As for event classes, if most activities in your system are invoked by stored procedures and each stored procedure invokes a small or limited number of activities, trace the SP:Completed event class. You will then be able to aggregate the data by the procedure. However, if each procedure invokes many activities, you want to trace the SP:StmtCompleted event class to capture each individual statement invoked from each stored procedure. If you have activities that are submitted as ad hoc batches (as in our case), trace the SQL:StmtCompleted event class. Finally, if you have activities submitted as remote procedure calls, trace the RPC:Completed event class. Notice that all event classes are Completed ones as opposed to the respective Starting event classes. Only the Completed event classes carry performance information such as Duration, CPU, Reads, and Writes because, naturally, these values are unknown when the respective event starts. As for data columns, you mainly need the TextData column that will carry the actual T-SQL code, and the relevant performance-related countersmost importantly, the Duration column. Remember that users perceive waits as the performance problem, and Duration stands for the elapsed time it took the event to run. I also like to trace the RowCounts data column, especially when looking for network-related problems. Queries returning the result set to the client with large numbers in this counter would indicate potential pressure on the network. Other than that, you might want additional data columns based on your needs. For example, if you later want to analyze the data by host, application, login, and so on, make sure you also include the corresponding data columns. You can define a trace following these guidelines, and then script its definition to T-SQL code. I did so, and encapsulated the code in a stored procedure called sp_perfworkload_trace_start.
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Microsoft doesn't recommend using the sp_ prefix for local user stored procedures. I created the stored procedure with the sp_ prefix in the master database because it makes the procedure "special" in the sense that you can invoke it from any database without specifying the database qualifier.
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The stored procedure accepts a database ID and file name as input parameters. It defines a trace using the specified database ID as a filter, and the given file name as the target for the trace data; it starts the trace, and returns the newly generated trace ID via an output parameter. Run the code in Listing 3-3 to create the sp_perfworkload_trace_start stored procedure.
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Listing 3-3. Creation script for the sp_perfworkload_trace_start stored procedure
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SET NOCOUNT ON; USE master; GO IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.sp_perfworkload_trace_start') IS NOT NULL DROP PROC dbo.sp_perfworkload_trace_start; GO CREATE PROC dbo.sp_perfworkload_trace_start @dbid AS INT, @tracefile AS NVARCHAR(254), @traceid AS INT OUTPUT AS -- Create a Queue DECLARE @rc AS INT; DECLARE @maxfilesize AS BIGINT; SET @maxfilesize = 5; EXEC @rc = sp_trace_create @traceid OUTPUT, 0, @tracefile, @maxfilesize, NULL IF (@rc != 0) GOTO error; -- Client side File and Table cannot be scripted -- Set the events DECLARE @on AS BIT; SET @on = 1; EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent EXEC sp_trace_setevent
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@traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid, @traceid,
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10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10,
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15, @on; 8, @on; 16, @on; 48, @on; 1, @on; 17, @on; 10, @on; 18, @on; 11, @on; 12, @on;
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EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC EXEC
sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent sp_trace_setevent
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13, @on; 14, @on; 8, @on; 16, @on; 48, @on; 1, @on; 17, @on; 10, @on; 18, @on; 11, @on; 12, @on; 13, @on; 14, @on; 15, @on; 15, @on; 8, @on; 16, @on; 48, @on; 1, @on; 17, @on; 10, @on; 18, @on; 11, @on; 12, @on; 13, @on; 14, @on;
-- Set the Filters DECLARE @intfilter AS INT; DECLARE @bigintfilter AS BIGINT; -- Application name filter EXEC sp_trace_setfilter @traceid, 10, 0, 7, N'SQL Server Profiler%'; -- Database ID filter EXEC sp_trace_setfilter @traceid, 3, 0, 0, @dbid; -- Set the trace status to start EXEC sp_trace_setstatus @traceid, 1; -- Print trace id and file name for future references PRINT 'Trce ID: ' + CAST(@traceid AS VARCHAR(10)) + ', Trace File: ''' + @tracefile + ''''; GOTO finish; error: PRINT 'Error Code: ' + CAST(@rc AS VARCHAR(10)); finish: GO
Run the following code to start the trace, filtering events against the Performance database and sending the trace data to the file 'c:\temp\Perfworkload 20060828.trc': DECLARE @dbid AS INT, @traceid AS INT; SET @dbid = DB_ID('Performance');
EXEC dbo.sp_perfworkload_trace_start @dbid = @dbid, @tracefile = 'c:\temp\Perfworkload 20060828.trc', @traceid = @traceid OUTPUT;
If you were to assume that the newly generated trace ID is 2, you would get the following output: Trace ID: 2, Trace File: 'c:\temp\perfworkload 20060828.trc'
You need to keep the trace ID aside, as you will use it later to stop the trace and close it. Next, run the sample queries from Listing 3-2 several times. When done, stop the trace and close it by running the following code (assuming the trace ID is 2): EXEC sp_trace_setstatus 2, 0; EXEC sp_trace_setstatus 2, 2;
Of course, you should specify the actual trace ID you got for your trace. If you lost the scrap of paper you wrote the trace ID on, query the sys.traces view to get information about all running traces. When tracing a workload in a production environment for tuning purposes, make sure you trace a sufficiently representative one. In some cases, this might mean tracing for only a couple of hours, while in other cases it can be a matter of days. The next step is to load the trace data to a table and analyze it. Of course, you can open it with Profiler and examine it there; however, typically such traces generate a lot of data, and there's not much that you can do with Profiler to analyze the data. In our case, we have a small number of sample queries. Figure 3-4 shows what the trace data looks like when loaded in Profiler.
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