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Uncommon Predicates
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In addition to IN and EXISTS, there are three more predicates in SQL, but they are rarely used: ANY, SOME, and ALL. You can consider them to be generalizations of the IN predicate. (ANY and SOME are
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synonyms, and there is no logical difference between them.) An IN predicate is translated to a series of equality predicates separated by OR operatorsfor example, v IN(x, y, z) is translated to v = x OR v = y OR v = z . ANY (or SOME) allows you to specify the comparison you want in each predicate, not limiting you to the equality operator. For example, v <> ANY(x, y, z) is translated to v <> x OR v <> y OR v <> z . ALL is similar, but it's translated to a series of logical expressions separated by AND operators. For example, v <> ALL(x, y, z) is translated to v <> x AND v <> y AND v <> z .
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IN allows as input either a list of literals or a subquery returning a single column. ANY/SOME and ALL support only a subquery as input. If you have the need to use these uncommon predicates with a list of literals as input, you must convert the list to a subquery. So, instead of v <> ANY(x, y, z) , you would use v <> ANY(SELECT x UNION ALL SELECT y UNION ALL SELECT z) .
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To demonstrate the use of these uncommon predicates, let's suppose you were asked to return, for each employee, the order with the minimum OrderID . Here's how you can achieve this with the ANY operator, which would generate the result shown in Table 4-10 : SELECT OrderID, CustomerID, EmployeeID, OrderDate FROM dbo.Orders AS O1 WHERE NOT OrderID > ANY(SELECT OrderID FROM dbo.Orders AS O2 WHERE O2.EmployeeID = O1.EmployeeID);
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10248 VINET 5 1996-07-04 10249 TOMSP 6 1996-07-05 10250 HANAR
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4 1996-07-08 10251 VICTE 3 1996-07-08 10255 RICSU 9 1996-07-12 10258 ERNSH 1 1996-07-17 10262 RATTC 8 1996-07-22 10265 BLONP 2 1996-07-25 10289 BSBEV 7 1996-08-26
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Table 4-10. Row with the Minimum OrderID for Each Employee
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OrderID CustomerID EmployeeID OrderDate
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A row has the minimum OrderID for an employee if its OrderID is not greater than any OrderID for the same employee. You can also write a query using ALL to achieve the same thing: SELECT OrderID, CustomerID, EmployeeID, OrderDate FROM dbo.Orders AS O1 WHERE OrderID <= ALL(SELECT OrderID FROM dbo.Orders AS O2 WHERE O2.EmployeeID = O1.EmployeeID);
A row has the minimum OrderID for an employee if its OrderID is less than or equal to all OrderID s for the same employee. None of the solutions above would fall into the category of intuitive solutions, and maybe this can explain why these predicates are not commonly used. The natural way to write the solution query would probably be as follows: SELECT OrderID, CustomerID, EmployeeID, OrderDate FROM dbo.Orders AS O1 WHERE OrderID = (SELECT MIN(OrderID) FROM dbo.Orders AS O2 WHERE O2.EmployeeID = O1.EmployeeID);
Table Expressions
So far, I've covered scalar and multi-valued subqueries. This section deals with table subqueries, which are known as Table Expressions. In this chapter, I'll discuss derived tables and the new common table expressions (CTE).
More Info
For information about the two other types of table expressionsviews and user-defined functions (UDF)please refer to Inside Microsoft SQL Server 2005: T-SQL Programming (Microsoft Press, 2006).
Derived Tables
A derived table is a table expressionthat is, a virtual result table derived from a query expression. A derived table appears in the FROM clause of a query like any other table. The scope of existence of a derived table is the outer query's scope only. The general form in which a derived table is used is as follows: FROM (derived_table_query expression) AS derived_table_alias
Note
A derived table is completely virtual. It's not physically materialized, nor does the optimizer generate a separate plan for it. The outer query and the inner one are merged, and one plan is generated. You shouldn't have any special concerns regarding performance when using derived tables. Merely using derived tables neither degrades nor improves performance. Their use is more a matter of simplification and clarity of code.
A derived table must be a valid table; therefore, it must follow several rules: All columns must have names. The column names must be unique.
ORDER BY is not allowed (unless TOP is also specified).
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