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9 Dynamic SQL
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BEGIN RAISERROR('Possible SQL injection attempt.', 16, 1); RETURN; END -- Construct the full T-SQL statement -- and execute dynamically SET @sql = N'WITH PivotInput AS ( SELECT shipperid, shipcountry, freight FROM Sales.Orders ) SELECT * FROM PivotInput PIVOT(SUM(freight) FOR shipcountry IN (' + @cols + N')) AS P;'; EXEC sp_executesql @sql;
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Caution Note that whenever constructing code from user input be it direct user input, or
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data from a table (like in our case) such code is susceptible to SQL injection attacks . I added validation of the string generated in @cols . Still, remember that sophisticated hackers will always find ways to circumvent your validations, so never assume that your code is completely safe .
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I described the technique to concatenate strings using the FOR XML PATH option in 2, User-Defined Functions .
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Generalizing Dynamic Pivoting
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Assume that you re given the task of writing a stored procedure that produces a dynamic pivot in the database you are connected to . The stored procedure accepts the following parameters (all Unicode character strings): @query, @on_rows, @on_cols, @agg_func, and @agg_col . Based on the inputs, you re supposed to construct a PIVOT query string and execute it dynamically . Here s the description of the input parameters: @query Query or table/view name given to the PIVOT operator as input Column/expression list that will be used as the grouping columns
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@on_rows
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@on_cols Column or expression to be pivoted; the distinct values from this column will become the target column names @agg_func Aggregate function (MIN, MAX, SUM, COUNT, and so on) @agg_col Column/expression given to the aggregate function as input
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If you re still confused regarding the requirements and the meaning of each input, skip the solution in Listing 9-1 . Instead, examine the invocation examples and the outputs that follow the listing and the explanation of the solution . Then try to provide your own solution before looking at this one .
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Inside Microsoft SQL Server 2008: T-SQL Programming
Important Note that the solution in Listing 9-1 follows bad programming practices and is
insecure . I ll use this solution to discuss flaws in its implementation and then suggest a more robust and secure alternative .
Listing 9-1 shows a suggested solution for the task .
LiSTing 9-1 Creation script for the sp_pivot stored procedure
USE master; IF OBJECT_ID('dbo.sp_pivot', 'P') IS NOT NULL DROP PROC dbo.sp_pivot; GO CREATE PROC @query @on_rows @on_cols @agg_func @agg_col @debug AS dbo.sp_pivot AS NVARCHAR(MAX), AS NVARCHAR(MAX), AS NVARCHAR(MAX), AS NVARCHAR(257) = AS NVARCHAR(MAX), AS BIT = 1
-- The query, or a table/view name. -- The columns that will be regular rows. -- The columns that are to be pivoted. N'MAX', -- Aggregate function. -- Column to aggregate. -- Statement will be printed if 1.
-- Input validation IF @query IS NULL OR @on_rows IS NULL OR @on_cols IS NULL OR @agg_func IS NULL OR @agg_col IS NULL BEGIN RAISERROR('Invalid input parameters.', 16, 1); RETURN; END BEGIN TRY DECLARE @sql AS NVARCHAR(MAX), @cols AS NVARCHAR(MAX), @newline AS NVARCHAR(2); SET @newline = NCHAR(13) + NCHAR(10); -- If input is a valid table or view -- construct a SELECT statement against it IF COALESCE(OBJECT_ID(@query, N'U'), OBJECT_ID(@query, N'V')) IS NOT NULL SET @query = N'SELECT * FROM ' + @query; -- Make the query a derived table SET @query = N'(' + @query + N') AS Query'; -- Handle * input in @agg_col IF @agg_col = N'*' SET @agg_col = N'1'; -- Construct column list SET @sql = N'SET @result = '
+ @newline +
9 Dynamic SQL
N' N' STUFF(' (SELECT N'','' + QUOTENAME(' + 'CAST(pivot_col AS sysname)' + + ') AS [text()]' FROM (SELECT DISTINCT(' + @on_cols + N') AS pivot_col' FROM' + @query + N') AS DistinctCols' ORDER BY pivot_col' FOR XML PATH(''''), TYPE)' + N'.value(''.[1]'', ''VARCHAR(MAX)'')' ,1, 1, N'''');' + @newline +
+ @newline + + @newline + + @newline + + @newline + + @newline +
N' N' N' N' N'
IF @debug = 1 PRINT @sql; EXEC sp_executesql @stmt = @sql, @params = N'@result AS NVARCHAR(MAX) OUTPUT', @result = @cols OUTPUT; -- Create the PIVOT query SET @sql = N'SELECT *' + @newline N'FROM (SELECT ' + @on_rows + N', ' + @on_cols + N' AS pivot_col' + N', ' + @agg_col + N' AS agg_col' + @newline N' FROM ' + @query + N')' + + N' AS PivotInput' + @newline N' PIVOT(' + @agg_func + N'(agg_col)' + @newline N' FOR pivot_col IN(' + @cols + N')) AS PivotOutput;' IF @debug = 1 PRINT @sql; EXEC sp_executesql @sql; END TRY BEGIN CATCH DECLARE @error_message AS NVARCHAR(2047), @error_severity AS INT, @error_state AS INT; SET @error_message = ERROR_MESSAGE(); SET @error_severity = ERROR_SEVERITY(); SET @error_state = ERROR_STATE(); RAISERROR(@error_message, @error_severity, @error_state); RETURN; END CATCH GO
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