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Basic Spatial Data Concepts
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Geometry and geography are surprisingly deep fields, and although we cannot afford a complete exposition on them here, a brief introduction will aid the SQL Server practitioner working with spatial data .
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Vector Data and the OGC Simple Features Type Model
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Spatial data comes in several flavors . The main division is between raster and vector data . Bitmap images are a form of raster data, which are composed of a regular array of data points . In the spatial context, aerial images are the most familiar raster data . Although such data can certainly be stored in SQL Server, it is not the focus of the new spatial support in SQL Server 2008 . SQL Server s new support is for vector data, which represents objects by building up collections of mathematical primitives, such as points and line segments . Rather than lying in a regular array, these primitives may lie anywhere in the working space . The distinction between vector and raster representations is shown in Figure 14-2, with vector data represented as black solid lines and the raster representation of the same regions as gray cells .
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14 Spatial Data
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FiguRe 14-2 Raster and vector data representations of the same spatial objects
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More Info An example of a large raster data system built on SQL Server is TerraServer
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(http://terraserver-usa.com/ ) . Built to highlight the scalability of SQL Server, TerraServer currently runs on a set of SQL Server 2000 instances .
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There are several common geometric object models, but in the geospatial arena, the OpenGIS model, which is a product of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), predominates . SQL Server supports this system, which has the following primitives:
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Point A simple position in space . LineString A set of points with connected by straight edges . LineStrings may be open (have different start- and endpoints) or closed (have the same start- and endpoint); and may or may not be simple (non-self-intersecting) . (See the section Working on the Ellipsoid later in the chapter for additional discussion of edges .) Polygon A region whose boundary is defined by a set of rings (simple, closed LineStrings) . MultiPoint A collection of zero or more points . A collection of zero or more LineStrings . A collection of zero or more Polygons . A collection of zero or more instances of any of these primitives .
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n n n n
MultiLineString MultiPolygon
GeometryCollection
Inside Microsoft SQL Server 2008: T-SQL Programming
Examples of these primitives are illustrated in Figure 14-3 .
Point MultiPoint LineString MultiLineString
Polygon
MultiPolygon
GeometryCollection
FiguRe 14-3 Open Geospatial Consortium geometry primitives
With these primitives, we can describe a wide array of objects in the world .
Planar and Geographic Coordinates
With some minor exceptions, SQL Server 2008 works only on objects in a two-dimensional space, but a two-dimensional space need not be flat . Thus, although SQL Server will work with objects in the plane, it will also work with objects on an ellipsoidal model of Earth . We call the former planar systems, and the latter geographic systems . The choice of model affects several aspects of our work . Most fundamentally, points form the basis of our vector geometry system, and we build our other objects from them . But how do we represent points themselves Because we re working in a two-dimensional system, we need two coordinates for each point, but the form these coordinates take varies . In a planar coordinate system, coordinates are expressed with a linear measure typically meters or feet in each of two coordinate axes . The axes are often labeled east west and north south, or simply x and y, and they intersect at a zero point called the origin . The coordinate values tell us how far from the origin a given point is in each of these directions . In a geographic system, coordinates are expressed with an angular measure typically degrees . Latitude is the angle between a point and the equatorial plane, which tells us how far north or south the point lies; longitude is the angle east or west of the prime meridian . (Although the rotation of Earth gives a physical definition to the equator, the prime meridian is arbitrary and must be agreed upon .)
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