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would be handled with <junit> as covered in chapter 4. We are not going to cover Mock Objects, but rather refer you to http://www.mockobjects.com for further exploration. Mock Objects are powerful in their own way. We are going to take a look at Cactus, because its model for server-side unit tests is unique and tightly integrated with Ant. Our coverage of Cactus is intentionally brief. It is a fairly complex framework to explain architecturally, and it has been documented beautifully by Vincent Massol at the Cactus web site (http://jakarta.apache.org/cactus/), as well as in our good friends book, Java Tools for Extreme Programming (Hightower & Lesiecki 2001). 12.7.1 Cactus from Ant s perspective Let s take a look at what makes Cactus tick from an Ant perspective. To run test cases in a J2EE container, you first need a running container, of course. Yet, we do not want the burden of manually having to deploy, start, and stop our application server. Cactus does this for us with its <runservertests> Ant task. This task is part of the Cactus distribution, and looks quite elegant in our build file. Listing 12.7 shows the build file pieces used to run our Cactus unit tests. Our example was adapted easily from the sample provided with the Cactus distribution with very few changes, mostly in a build.properties file to configure the location of libraries needed for compilation and deployment.
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Listing 12.7
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Part of a build file to run server-side tests with Cactus
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<target name="tests_tomcat_40" depends="prepare_tests_tomcat_40" if="tomcat.home.40"> <runservertests testURL="http://localhost:${test.port}/test" startTarget="start_tomcat_40" stopTarget="stop_tomcat_40" testTarget="tests"/> </target> <target name="start_tomcat_40"> <java classname="org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap" fork="true"> <jvmarg value="-Dcatalina.home=${tomcat.home.40}"/> <arg value="-config"/> <arg value="${out.tomcat40.full.dir}/conf/server.xml"/> <arg value="start"/> <classpath> <pathelement path="${java.class.path}"/> <fileset dir="${tomcat.home.40}"> <include name="bin/bootstrap.jar"/> <include name="server/catalina.jar"/> </fileset> </classpath> </java> </target> <target name="stop_tomcat_40"> <java classname="org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap" fork="true"> <jvmarg value="-Dcatalina.home=${tomcat.home.40}"/> <arg value="stop"/> <classpath> <pathelement path="${java.class.path}"/> <fileset dir="${tomcat.home.40}"> <include name="bin/bootstrap.jar"/> <include name="server/catalina.jar"/> </fileset> </classpath> </java> </target>
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How Cactus works Again, we ll refer you to the Cactus documentation for more details about how it works, but here is a brief description. You write test cases that extend from the Cactus base test case classes: ServletTestCase, JspTestCase, or FilterTestCase. Your test cases are compiled and deployed on an application server and also remain on the client where Ant is running. The <runservertests> task is an interesting beast: it accepts other Ant target names as parameters and uses those in a multithreaded way. First, the target specified by startTarget is executed in its own thread to keep the process from blocking, followed by the testTarget and finally the stopTarget. The startTarget for Tomcat, as shown in listing 12.7, starts Tomcat from our freshly built deployment directory. A configuration file is built dynamically using filtered <copy> tasks to customize the environment for our desired settings. The tests run using the standard <junit> techniques shown in chapter 4. There is no distinction within Ant s <junit> between a Cactus test case and any other JUnit test case. Figure 12.6 shows what happens under the covers.
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beginXXX
OurTest Redirector Proxy OurTest
setUp testXXX tearDown
endXXX
Server-side classes
Web Container
Figure 12.6 Cactus unit tests run server-side, using a proxy servlet to bind them to the Ant-hosted tests.
The client-side (from Ant) test case is executed through the <junit> framework. On the client side, methods beginning with begin and end are invoked before and after executing the actual test method on the server side. The proxy invokes the standard setUp and tearDown methods on the server side. The begin-prefixed method is used for configuring the HTTP request parameters, such as cookies, HTTP headers, and URLs to simulate. The end-prefixed method is more complex in that it can have one of two different method signatures. There is a Cactus WebResponse and an HttpUnit WebResponse class. This lets you use HttpUnit, as described earlier in this chapter, to do sophisticated, test-generated, HTML results content testing. If your test does not require HttpUnit testing, then simply use the Cactus WebResponse class in the endXXX method signature. The beginXXX, endXXX, setUp, and tearDown methods are all optional.
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