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STEP FOUR: IMPOSING STRUCTURE
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know something like a constant or compiler option has changed. Do it whenever you are going to release code, or first thing after a big update from the source code repository, and do it when the build just seems odd. The structure we are going to use is a subset of the standard structure we use throughout this book, and which we encourage you to adopt or at least ignore from a position of knowledge. We list the structure in table 2.1.
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Table 2.1 An Ant project should split source files, intermediate files, and distribution packages into separate directories. This makes them much easier to manage during the build process. The directories are a de facto standard in Ant projects. If you use them it will be easier to integrate your build files with those of others. Directory name src build/classes dist Function source files intermediate output (created; cleanable) distributable files (created; cleanable)
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Laying out the source directories The first directory, src, contains the source and is the most important. The other two contain files that are created during the build. To clean these directories up, these entire directory trees can be deleted. Of course, this means the build file may need to recreate the directories if they are not already present. We want to move the Java source into the src directory and extend the build file to create and use the other directories. Before moving the Java file, it needs a package name; we have chosen org.example.antbook.lesson1. Add this at the top of the source file in a package declaration:
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package org.example.antbook.lesson1; public class Main { public static void main(String args[]) { for(int i=0;i<args.length;i++) { System.out.println(args[i]); } } }
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You must then save the file in a directory tree beneath the source directory that matches that package hierarchy: src/org/example/antbook/lesson1. This is because the dependency checking code in <javac> relies on the source files being laid out this way. When the Java compiler compiles the files, it always places the output files in a directory tree that matches the package declaration. The next time the <javac> task runs, its dependency checking code looks at the tree of generated class files and compares it to the source files. It does not look inside the source files to find their package declarations; it relies on the source tree being laid out to match the destination tree. 32 GETTING STARTED WITH ANT
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For Java source dependency checking to work, you must lay out source in a directory tree that matches the package declarations in the source.
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Only when the source is not in any package can you place it in the base of the source tree and expect <javac> to track dependencies properly, which is what we have been doing up until now. If Ant keeps on recompiling your Java files every time you do a build, it is probably because you have not placed them correctly in the package hierarchy. It may seem inconvenient having to rearrange your files to suit the build tool, but the benefits become clear over time. On a large project, such a layout is critical to separating and organizing classes. If you start with it from the outset, even on a small project, you can grow more gently from a small project to a larger one. Modern IDEs also prefer this layout structure, as does the underlying Java compiler. Be aware that dependency checking of <javac> is simply limited to comparing the dates on the source and destination files. There is a secondary task to do more advanced dependency checking, which is covered in chapter 10. Even then, a regular a clean build is a good practice. 2.5.2 Laying out the build directories We want to configure Ant to put all intermediate files those files generated by any step in the build process that are not directly delivered or deployed into the build directory tree. A large project can use Ant to generate many kinds of intermediate files: HTML pages from XML source, Java source files from JSP source, even text or data files generated by running programs that Ant compiles and executes during the build. The simple project being developed in this chapter has none of these needs, but we will plan ahead by putting the compiled files into a subdirectory of build, a directory called classes. Different intermediate output types can have their own directories alongside this one. As we mentioned in section 2.4.1, the Java compiler lays out packaged files into a directory structure that matches the package declarations in the source files. The compiler will create the appropriate subdirectories on demand, so we do not need to create them by hand. What we do need to create is the top-level build directory, and the classes subdirectory. We do this with the Ant task <mkdir>, which, like the shell command of the same name, creates a directory. In fact, it creates parent directories, too, if needed:
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