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Web services use XML as the language of communication to provide computing functionality as a service over the Internet. Web services extend the web, so every service exposes itself as one or more URLs, URLs that provide functionality in response to POST or GET requests. The exact details of the communication are still evolving; SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) and REST (Representational State Transfer) are the current competing ideologies. REST is a conceptual model of how to expose objects, properties, and methods as URLs (Fielding 2000); to implement a REST service you export URLs for all the objects and attributes you wish callers to have access to; callers send and receive data to and from the URLs in the format they prefer. SOAP has more of a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) flavor. A single URL acts as an endpoint; a SOAP endpoint can receive different requests/method calls in the posted request, and return different XML responses for the different methods. Central to SOAP is WSDL, the Web Services Description Language. This is roughly the SOAP equivalent of an Interface Definition Language (IDL). SOAP 1.1 clients use it to examine a remote API, and that services use to define which API they export, as shown in figure 15.1. Unlike the old RPC world, where writing an IDL file was mandatory, in the new SOAP universe, you can write your classes and let the run time generate the WSDL from it. Many web service practitioners consider this to be a bad thing, as it makes interoperability with other SOAP implementations, and maintenance in general, that much harder. It is, therefore, a shame that WSDL is even harder to work with than classic IDL.
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Application server WSDL Client application XML request XML response WSDL description Web Service Endpoint Endpoint
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Figure 15.1 SOAP-based web services offer service metadata in their WSDL file and method invocation with XML requests and responses.
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SOAP 1.2, still under development, looks to be moving away from an RPC model, in which the caller blocks till the response is received, to a more asynchronous model in which SOAP messages are routed to a destination. Some of the low-level APIs used to support XML messaging in Java can work with this model, specifically the JAXM API for XML messaging. 356 WORKING WITH WEB SERVICES
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CHAPTER 1 5
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The SOAP API The Java API for XML-based RPC (JAX-RPC) is a higher level SOAP API. Both the Apache and Sun toolkits implement JAX-RPC. This API comprises the javax. xml.soap and javax.xml.rpc packages; the different libraries provide their own implementations of these APIs. Apache Axis has its own API under org.apache. axis. Although these APIs are powerful, they are also complex. Although we will use these APIs and their implementation, we will avoid learning the APIs ourselves by handing off the grunge work to Axis and associated tools. Adding web services to Java SOAP support in Java is still evolving; initially Sun neglected it with Java everywhere, there was no need for web services. However, Sun has pulled enough of a U-turn to embrace SOAP, with full support promised in J2EE 1.4. They also provide the Java web services Developer Pack as a download from http://java.sun.com/ webservices/. This large download includes many well-known Apache components: Tomcat, Xerces, Xalan, and even Ant. Other vendors provide their own toolkits for supporting web services in Java. We stick with the Apache Axis library, from the sibling project of Jakarta, because it is nice to be able to step into the code to debug everything. We also know that if there is anything we don t like about the implementation we can get it fixed, even if that means doing it ourselves. You can download Apache Axis from its home page, http://xml.apache.org/axis/; we have used the beta-1, beta-2, and later CVS versions. Like all open source projects, it is continually evolving, so some details may have changed since we wrote this. Both the Sun and Apache implementations have a moderately complex deployment process: the Sun server library only works with a specially modified version of Tomcat, whereas the Apache implementation prefers that you add your services to their example web application, rather than write your own. We will be patching our existing web service to support Axis, which involves some effort and some more testing.
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