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CREATING A SOAP CLIENT APPLICATION WITH ANT
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Before we build our own service, we will pick an existing web service and build a client for it. This lets us explore the client-side experience and build process, before we go deeper into web service development. All that we learn here will apply to our own integration tests. The Apache Axis library contains two programs for use at build time: WSDL2Java and Java2WSDL. These programs create Java classes from a WSDL description and vice versa. There are also two tasks <java2wsdl> and <wsdl2java> which are Ant wrappers around the programs. Unfortunately, in the beta-2 release, these tasks are not part of the binary distribution; they live in the test package, and you must build them yourself. Because these tasks are not part of the official distribution, and because
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CREATING A SOAP CLIENT APPLICATION WITH ANT
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they are undocumented, we are not going to cover them. Instead, we will call the documented programs with the <java> task. Figure 15.2 shows the overall workflow of our Ant build file.
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<get> WSDL from server Application server WSDL file WSDL description Web service Endpoint <java> WSDL2Java
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XML response Java proxy XML request <javac>
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Java client
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<java> client
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Figure 15.2 The build file to create and run a web service client application. You only write the client application that calls the service via the proxy classes.
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Preparing our build file The first step in our build process is to name the endpoint, the URL of the service that we will call. We will use one of the services offered by xmethods (http:// xmethods.net), a service that provides a stock quote. First, we set a property to point to the WSDL file of the service:
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<property name="endpoint" value= "http://services.xmethods.net/soap/urn:xmethods-delayed-quotes.wsdl" />
We then define the directory locations to store the cached file, and to store any generated Java. As usual, we do not want to place generated source into our source tree, because of the risk of accidental overwriting. We also need an init target to set up the build.
<property name="axis.dir" location="${lib.dir}/xml-axis" /> <property name="xercesxalan.dir" location="${lib.dir}/xercesxalan" /> <property name="build.dir" location="build"/> <property name="fetched.dir" location="${build.dir}/fetched"/> <property name="generated.dir" location="${build.dir}/generated"/>
CHAPTER 1 5
WORKING WITH WEB SERVICES
<target name="init"> <mkdir dir="${fetched.dir}"/> <mkdir dir="${generated.dir}"/> <mkdir dir="${cached.dir}"/> <mkdir dir="${build.classes.dir}"/> <condition property="offline"> <not> <http url="${endpoint}"/> </not> </condition> </target>
Our init target probes for the endpoint being reachable, and sets a property if we are offline. When offline, we will not be able to run the service, but we still want to be able to compile the code against a cached copy of the WSDL file. Retrieving the WSDL from the remote server The remote server describes the SOAP API from a WSDL file, which it serves alongside the SOAP endpoint. We fetch this WSDL file by using the <get> task:
<target name="fetch-wsdl" depends="init" unless="offline"> <get src="${endpoint}" dest="${fetched.dir}/api.wsdl"/> </target>
To run this target behind a firewall, you may need to set the Java proxy properties to get to the remote endpoint; the <setproxy> task lets you do this inside your build file:
<setproxy proxyhost="web-proxy" proxyport="8080" />.
Creating the proxy classes After retrieving the file, we can create Java proxy stubs from the WSDL-described API. These classes allow us to talk to a SOAP service from our own code, without having to refer to javax.xml.soap or org.apache.axis in our code. It also adds compile time-type safety into our use of the SOAP service the generated classes talk to the SOAP API, so we don t have to. To create the stubs, we first set up the Axis classpath, then write a target to create the Java classes from the WSDL we have just fetched.
<path id="axis.classpath"> <fileset dir="${axis.dist.dir}"> <include name="**/*.jar"/> </fileset> <fileset dir="${xercesxalan.dist.dir}"> <include name="*.jar"/> </fileset> </path> <target name="import-wsdl" depends="fetch-wsdl"> <java classname="org.apache.axis.wsdl.WSDL2Java"
CREATING A SOAP CLIENT APPLICATION WITH ANT
fork="true" failonerror="true" classpathref="axis.classpath" > <arg file="${fetched.dir}/api.wsdl"/> <arg value="--output"/> <arg file="${generated.dir}"/> <arg value="--verbose"/> <arg value="--package"/> <arg value="soapapi"/> </java> </target>
This target runs the org.apache.axis.wsdl.WSDL2Java program to convert the WSDL interface description into Java source. We do this with <java>, taking care to set up the classpath to include all the files in the Axis lib directory. We also had to add an XML parser to the classpath, so we include Xerces in the path. The alternative approach is to add the Ant classpath to the <java> call, but we prefer to keep things self-contained. We also run the class in a new JVM, so that if the program returns an error by calling System.exit(), we get an exit code instead of the sudden death of Ant. The parameters to the task tell WSDL2Java to create classes from the downloaded WSDL file, into the package soapapi, into the directory build/generated. The result of the build, with many long lines wrapped to make them readable is:
import-wsdl: [java] Parsing XML file: build/fetched/api.wsdl [java] Generating portType interface: build/generated/soapapi/StockQuoteService.java [java] Generating client-side stub: build/generated/soapapi/StockQuoteServiceSoapBindingStub.java [java] Generating service class: build/generated/soapapi/StockQuoteServiceService.java [java] Generating service class: build/generated/soapapi/StockQuoteServiceServiceLocator.java [java] Generating fault class: build/generated/soapapi/Exception.java BUILD SUCCESSFUL
The program generated Java proxy classes for the endpoint. Let s look at them to see how we can use them. What WSDL2Java creates The target creates five Java classes that implement the client-side proxy to this service, and one interface listing the methods offered by the remote service:
/** * StockQuoteService.java *
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