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By providing an id attribute, we are defining a reference. This reference name can be used later wherever a fileset is expected. For example, copying our source code to another directory using the previously defined source.fileset is
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<copy todir="backup"> <fileset refid="source.fileset"/> </copy>
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Property overview Ant s property handling mechanism allows for build file extensibility and reusability by parameterizing any string-specified item. The control users get over build files can be dramatically increased with the techniques shown in this chapter. For example,
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This is somewhat oversimplified, as Ant s wrapper scripts do build a system classpath before invoking Ant. It is also, unfortunately, necessary to add dependent JAR files to ANT_HOME/lib to utilize some tasks.
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UNDERSTANDING ANT DATATYPES AND PROPERTIES
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changing a build to use a different version of a third-party library, perhaps for testing purposes, can be made as trivial as this:
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ant -Dstruts.jar=/home/ant/newstruts/struts.jar
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In this case, struts.jar represents an Ant property, and in our build file, we refer to it with special syntax: ${struts.jar}. A key feature of an Ant property is its immutability; it resists change once set.2 The interesting and powerful consequence of properties retaining their first set value is that build files can be coded to load property files in a specific order to allow user-, project-, or environment-controlled overrides.
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INTRODUCING DATATYPES AND PROPERTIES WITH <JAVAC>
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Compiling Java source is the most fundamental task during a build. Ant provides Java compilation using the <javac> task. The <javac> task provides a fa ade over Java source compilation by wrapping many different Java compilers and their associated switches behind a generalized task definition. A fa ade is a design pattern that provides an interface to a system of classes, hiding the implementation details of those classes behind a common interface. The <javac> task is the common interface to JDK 1.1 and up, Jikes, and several other Java compilers. There is much more to Java compilation than just specifying a source directory and destination directory. A comparison of Sun s JDK 1.3.1 javac command-line compiler switches to Ant s <javac> task is shown in table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Sun s JDK 1.3.1 javac compared to Ant s wrapper <javac> task. Note the similarities between all of the parameters. Also note Ant s way of using domain-specific terminology for concepts such as classpath. This fundamental concept of specifying a build in a higher-level language is one of Ant s greatest benefits over any other alternative to building Java projects. Option Name Debugging info JDK s javac switch -g (generate all debugging info) -g:{lines,vars,source} (generate only some debugging info) Optimize Generate no warnings Output messages about what the compiler is doing Output source locations where deprecated APIs are used -O -nowarn -verbose -deprecation Ant s <javac> syntax debug="yes" debug="yes" debuglevel="lines,vars,source" optimize="yes" nowarn="true" verbose="true" deprecation="on"
-g:none (generate no debugging info) debug="no"
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There are exceptions to this rule, but properties generally are immutable.
INTRODUCING DATATYPES AND PROPERTIES WITH <JAVAC>
Table 3.1 Sun s JDK 1.3.1 javac compared to Ant s wrapper <javac> task. Note the similarities between all of the parameters. Also note Ant s way of using domain-specific terminology for concepts such as classpath. This fundamental concept of specifying a build in a higher-level language is one of Ant s greatest benefits over any other alternative to building Java projects. (continued) Option Name JDK s javac switch Ant s <javac> syntax <classpath> <pathelement location="lib/some.jar"/> </classpath> <src path="src"/> <bootclasspath /> <extdirs /> destdir="build" encoding=" " target="1.1" source="1.4"
Specify where to find refer-classpath <path> enced class files and libraries
Specify where to find input source files Override location of bootstrap class files Override location of installed extensions Specify where to place generated class files Specify character encoding used by source files Generate class files for specific VM version Enable JDK 1.4 assertions
-sourcepath <path> -bootclasspath <path> -extdirs <dirs> -d <directory> -encoding <encoding> -target 1.1 -source 1.4
NOTE
Ant itself is not a Java compiler; it simply contains a fa ade over compilers such as Sun s javac. You need a Java compiler such as the JDK javac compiler. See appendix A for installation and configuration information in order to use <javac>.
The <javac> syntax shown in table 3.1 introduces several new attributes, as well as several new subelements of <javac>. Most of these attributes are Boolean in nature debug, optimize, nowarn, verbose, and deprecation. Ant allows flexibility in how Booleans can be specified with on, true, and yes all representing true, and any other value mapping to false. The elements <classpath>, <src>, <bootclasspath>, and <extdirs> introduce one of Ant s greatest assets its path and file handling capability. Each of these elements represents a path. For comparisons sake, to compile the code for our projects-indexing Ant task using Sun s JDK 1.3.1 javac compiler, the following command line is used:
javac -d build\classes -classpath lib\lucene-1.2-rc3\lucene-1.2-rc3.jar; lib\jtidy-04aug2000r7-dev\build\Tidy.jar; C:\AntBook\jakarta-ant-1.5\lib\ant.jar; -sourcepath src -g src\org\example\antbook\ant\lucene\*.java
The following Java compilation with Ant, utilizing Ant s datatypes and properties, shows the equivalent Ant task declaration in our build file. 50
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