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Use informative names for tests. It is better to know that testDocumentLoad failed, rather than test17 failed, especially when the test suddenly breaks four months after someone in the team wrote it. Try to test only one thing per test method. If testDocumentLoad fails and this test method contains only one possible point of failure, it is easier to track down the bug than to try and find out which one line out of twenty the failure occurred on. Utilize the testing up-to-date technique shown in section 4.8. Design builds to work as subcomponents, and be sensitive to build inefficiencies doing unnecessary work. Writing test cases changes how we implement the code we re trying to test, perhaps by refactoring our methods to be more easily isolated. This often leads to developing software that plays well with other modules because it is designed to work with the test case. This is effective particularly with database and container dependencies because it forces us to decouple core business logic from that of a database, a web container, or other frameworks. Writing test cases may actually improve the design of our production code. In particular, if you cannot write a test case for a class, you have a serious problem, as it means you have written untestable code. Hope is not lost if you are attempting to add testing to a large system that was built without unit tests in place. Do not attempt to retrofit test cases for the existing code in one big go. Before adding new code, write tests to validate the current behavior and verify that the new code does not break this behavior. When a bug is found, write a test case to identify it clearly, then fix the bug and watch the test pass. While some testing is better than no testing, a critical mass of tests needs to be in place to truly realize such XP benefits as fearless and confident refactoring. Keep at it and the tests will accumulate allowing the project to realize these and other benefits.
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Unit testing makes the world a better place because it gives us the knowledge of a change s impact and the confidence to refactor without fear of breaking code unknowingly. Here are some key points to keep in mind: JUnit is Java s de facto testing framework; it integrates tightly with Ant. <junit> runs tests cases, captures results, and can set a property if tests fail. Information can be passed from Ant to test cases via <sysproperty>. <junitreport> generates HTML test results reports, and allows for customization of the reports generated via XSLT.
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Now that you ve gotten Ant fundamentals down for compiling, using datatypes and properties, and testing, we move to executing Java and native programs from within Ant.
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5.1 5.2 5.3 Why you need to run external programs 111 Running Java programs 112 Starting native programs with <exec> 124 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Bulk execution with <apply> 130 Processing output 131 Limitations on execution 132 Best practices 132 Summary 133
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We now have a build process that compiles and tests our Java source. The tests say the code is good, so it is time to run it. This means that it is time for us to explore the capabilities of Ant to execute external programs, both Java and native.
WHY YOU NEED TO RUN EXTERNAL PROGRAMS
In the Make tool, all the real functionality of the build comes from external programs. Ant, with its built-in tasks, accomplishes much without having to resort to external code. Yet most large projects soon discover that they need to use external programs, be they native code or Java applications. The most common program to run from inside Ant is the one you are actually building, or test applications whose role is to perform unit, system, or load tests on the main program. The other common class of external program is the legacy build step : some part of your software needs to use a native compiler, a Perl script, or just some local utility program you need in your build. When you need to run programs from inside Ant, there are two solutions. One option, worthwhile if you need the external program in many build files, is to write a custom Ant task to invoke the program. We will show you how to do this in chapter 19. It is no harder than writing any other Java class, but it does involve programming, testing, and documentation. This is the most powerful and flexible means of integrating external code with Ant, and the effort is usually justified on a long project. We have often 111
written Ant task wrappers to our projects, simply because for an experienced Ant developer, this is a great way of making our programs easier to use from a build file. The alternative to writing a new Ant task is simply to invoke the program from the build file. This is the best approach if reuse is unlikely, your use of it is highly nonstandard, or you are in a hurry. Ant lets you invoke Java and native programs with relative ease. Not only can it run both types of applications as separate processes, Java programs can run inside Ant s own JVM for higher performance. Figure 5.1 illustrates the basic conceptual model for this execution. Interestingly enough, many Ant tasks work by calling native programs or Java programs. Calling the programs directly from the build file is a simple first step toward writing custom tasks.
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