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MASTER BUILDS: MANAGING LARGE PROJECTS
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The trick will be to use a property to name a common target to invoke on every subproject. Here, the property named target lets us control which target to invoke from a set of targets that we implement in every build file. This will let us write a master build file containing targets that call down to the child projects like this:
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<target name="do-tools" depends="do-ant"> <ant dir="tools" target="${target}" inheritAll="false"/> </target> <target name="do-index" depends="do-task"> <ant dir="index" target="${target}" inheritAll="false"/> </target> <target name="do-webapp" depends="do-tools,do-index"> <ant dir="webapp" target="${target}" inheritAll="false"/> </target>
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With such a build file, calling a target across all the subprojects is a simple as:
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ant -Dtarget=clean
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Even better, we can implement the same entry points in the master build file, and use <antcall> to set the target property before calling the graph of subprojects. Defining standard targets for projects The first step in this process is to define a standard set of target names. We have chosen the set in table 9.4. Most are from the de facto standard set of Ant target names: all, clean, dist, docs, and test. These should all perform known functions to an experienced Ant user.
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Table 9.4 Our unified set of entry points. We implement these targets across all our child projects. Target Name Function The default entry point Builds and tests everything; creates a distribution, optionally installs Deletes all generated files and directories Produces the distributables Generates all documentation Runs the unit tests Does nothing but print the name of the project
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default all clean dist docs test noop
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Two nonstandard targets are default and noop. The default target is going to be the default target for each project, which will usually depend upon dist to create a distribution. The noop target is a special target we added for two reasons: it lets us 216
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test the whole master build more easily and it paves the way for using extra properties to control the individual targets that each subproject executes. Adding these targets to the subprojects is simply a matter of adding those that we have not already implemented and pointing them at the appropriate internal targets. For the webapp project, for example, we add the following:
<target name="default" depends="dist" description="default: Make everything" /> <target name="all" depends="dist" description="build everything"/> <target name="test" depends="dist" description="run tests" /> <target name="docs" depends="javadocs" description="generate documentation" /> <target name="noop" />
We now add similar targets for the other projects, resulting in a set of entry points whose meaning is consistent across the projects. It is important that each target brings its project up to date for the sake of the dependents. This means that all the test tasks must also generate the outputs that the dependent projects need. This is why the default, all, and test targets for the webapp project create a distribution, by being dependent upon the dist target. Of course, the noop target consistently does nothing. After defining the targets, we declare each project s default entry point, as stated in the <project> declaration, to be the target called default. For example:
<project name="AntBook - Web App" default="default" basedir=".">
We need this default target because once we move to using a property to define a target, we need to know the name of the default target. Passing in an empty string as the target <ant target=""/> does not call the default target; it calls any target named "". Having a target called "" is very silly, as you cannot use it as a dependency. But some projects do use this as their default target, so we cannot change the behavior of <ant>. After implementing these targets in each of the projects, we manually call each of them once. It is important to know that a build file works on its own before trying to integrate it into a larger project. Creating a dependency graph With each subproject implementing the same entry points, we can now create the graph of dependencies between the projects. This tells us the order in which to call the projects from the master build. What we cannot do is have a different dependency graph for different targets in each project: test cannot have a different set of dependencies from docs. We need to combine all predecessor projects of all the entry point targets into a single list. As long as there is no looping created by this process, we are ready for the next step. Figure 9.2 shows our project s dependency graph. MASTER BUILDS: MANAGING LARGE PROJECTS 217
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