What Is a Permission in .NET

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What Is a Permission
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A permission is a CAS access control entry. For example, the File Dialog permission determines whether an assembly can prompt the user with the Open dialog box, the Save dialog box, both, or neither. Figure 6-1 shows the File Dialog permission being configured.
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Figure 6-1
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Permissions specify whether an assembly can and can t do specific actions.
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By default, 19 permissions are available for configuration in the .NET Framework Configuration tool. Each corresponds to two members of the System.Security.Permissions
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Implementing Code Access Security
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namespace: one for imperative use and one for declarative use. Table 6-2 describes each of these permissions.
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Table 6-2 Default Permissions
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Permission Directory Services DNS Environment Variables
Description Grants an assembly access to the Active Directory. You can specify paths,
and whether Browse or Write access is available.
Enables or restricts an assembly s access to submit DNS requests.
Grants assemblies access to environment variables, such as Path, User-
name, and Number_Of_Processors. You can grant an assembly access to
all environment variables, or specify those that the assembly should be
able to access. To view all environment variables, open a command
prompt and run the command Set.
Provides an assembly access to event logs. You can grant unlimited access,
or you can limit access to browsing or auditing.
Controls whether an assembly can prompt the user with the Open dialog
box, the Save dialog box, or both.
Restricts access to files and folders. You can grant an assembly unrestricted
access, or you can specify a list of paths and whether each path should
grant Read, Write, Append, or Path Discovery access.
Grants assemblies access to isolated storage. You can configure the level
of isolation and the size of the disk quota.
Allows an assembly to access message queues, which can be restricted by
path and access type.
Lists the OLE DB provider that an assembly can access, and controls
whether blank passwords are allowed.
Controls whether an assembly can read or write performance counters.
Limits an assembly s ability to print.
Controls whether an assembly can discover member and type information
in other assemblies.
Restricts access to registry keys. You can grant an assembly unrestricted
access, or you can specify a list of keys and whether each key should
grant Read, Write, or Delete access.
Provides granular control over the assembly s access to various CAS fea-
tures. All assemblies must at least have the Enable Assembly Execution
setting to run. This permission also controls whether assemblies can call
unmanaged code, assert permissions, and control threads, among other
settings.
Specifies which services, if any, an assembly can browse or control.
Event Log File Dialog File IO
Isolated Storage File Message Queue OLE DB Performance Counter Printing Reflection Registry
Security
Service Controller
Lesson 1: Explaining Code Access Security
Table 6-2
Default Permissions
Description Used to control whether an assembly can initiate TCP/IP connections. You can control the destination, port number, and protocol. Controls whether an assembly can access SQL Servers, and whether blank passwords are allowed. Determines whether an assembly can create new windows or access the clipboard. Determines whether the assembly can access Web sites, and which Web sites can be accessed.
Permission Socket Access SQL Client User Interface Web Access
What Is a Permission Set
A permission set is a CAS ACL. For example, the Internet default permission set contains the following permissions:
File Dialog Isolated Storage File Security User Interface Printing
The LocalIntranet zone contains more permissions based on the theory that code running on your local network deserves more trust than code running from the Internet:
Environment Variables File Dialog Isolated Storage File Reflection Security User Interface DNS Printing Event Log
6
Implementing Code Access Security
The .NET Framework includes seven default permission sets, as described in Table 6-3.
Table 6-3 Default Permission Sets
Permission Set FullTrust SkipVerification Execution Nothing LocalIntranet
Description Exempts an assembly from CAS permission checks.
Enables an assembly to bypass permission checks, which can improve
performance, but sacrifices security. Enables an assembly to run, and grants no other permissions. Grants no permissions to an assembly. The assembly will not even be allowed to run. Grants a generous set of permissions to assemblies, including the ability to print and access the event log. Notably, does not allow the assembly to access the file system except through the open and save dialog boxes. Grants a restricted set of permissions to an assembly. Generally, you can run an assembly with this permission set with very little risk. Even malicious assemblies should not be able to cause any serious damage when run with this permission set. Grants assemblies all permissions. This is different from FullTrust, which skips all CAS security checks. Assemblies with the Everything permission set will still be subject to CAS checks.
Internet
Everything
What Are Code Groups
Code groups are authorization devices that associate assemblies with permission sets. Code groups provide a similar service to CAS as user groups provide to RBS. For example, if an administrator wants to grant a set of users access to a folder, the administrator creates a user group, adds the users to the group, and then assigns file permissions to the group. Code groups work similarly, except that you don t have to manually add individual assemblies to a group. Instead, group membership is determined by the evidence that you specify as the code group s membership condition. For example, any code running from the Internet should be a member of the Internet_Zone code group. As you can see from Figure 6-2, the Internet_Zone code group s default membership condition is that the host presents Zone evidence, and that piece of Zone evidence identifies the assembly as being in the Internet zone.
Lesson 1: Explaining Code Access Security
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Figure 6-2
The Internet_Zone code group membership is restricted by using Zone evidence.
Whereas user groups control authorization based on distributed ACLs associated with each resource, code groups use centralized permission sets. For example, Figure 6-3 shows that the Internet_Zone code group assigns the Internet permission set. For convenience, the dialog box lists the permission set s individual permissions. However, you cannot specify individual permissions for a code group. A code group must be associated with a permission set.
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