Figure B-3 Displaying the SQLOS memory node configuration and allocations in .NET

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Figure B-3 Displaying the SQLOS memory node configuration and allocations
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SQL Server 2005 Architecture and Internals
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If the query returns a single row, it indicates that your system is not configured to use NUMA. In some cases, hardware vendors have implemented NUMA architectures that are not detectable by SQLOS. This can lead to performance problems very quickly. To alleviate this problem, SQL Server 2005 has the capability to manually configure NUMA-like support. This is known as soft-NUMA.
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Configuring SQL Server Soft-NUMA Support
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The primary instance in which you should consider utilizing soft-NUMA is when you suspect that there is an I/O-related performance problem when running applications but you also believe that your I/O subsystem is properly configured. This is a common problem among high-volume systems that are configured to utilize Storage Area Networks (SANs). Each NUMA node has its own I/O thread that is responsible for reading and writing data on the disk and another thread, known as a lazy writer, that is responsible for managing the state of the SQL Server buffer cache. For systems in which NUMA is not automatically detected by SQLOS, configuring soft-NUMA can significantly affect I/O performance. Another reason to consider soft-NUMA is for multiple-instance support. Each instance of SQL Server on a single machine shares NUMA nodes by default, so when dealing with multiple instances and more than 8 GB on a machine, using soft-NUMA can lead to performance gains. Configuring soft-NUMA support in SQL Server 2005 is a two-step process. The first step is setting the processor affinity mask. A processor affinity mask is a structure that is used to bind a specific processor to a specific memory node. The second step is adding a registry value to map NUMA nodes onto specific processors. Configuring soft-NUMA support also requires an understanding of binary and hexadecimal math. For example, if you have a system with eight processors and two instances of SQL Server 2005 running, and you want to assign four processors to each instance, you would set the processor affinity of the first instance to 15 decimal (00001111 binary), and the processor affinity of the second instance to 240 decimal (11110000 binary). Processor affinity on the first instance can be set with the sp_configure stored procedure as follows:
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EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options',1 RECONFIGURE GO EXEC sp_configure 'affinity mask',15; Processor affinity on the second instance can be set as follows: EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options',1 RECONFIGURE GO EXEC sp_configure 'affinity mask',240;
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Appendix B
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Configuring NUMA support on more than 32 processors
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The above sp_configure options are specific to systems with 32 or fewer processors. If you are working with a system that has more than 32 processors and you want to configure the affinity mask, you must use both the affinity mask option shown above and the affinity64 mask. For more information, see the SQL Server 2005 Books Online article affinity64 mask Option at http:// msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms188291.aspx.
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In addition to using hexadecimal math, you can also use the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Management Studio to configure processor affinity, as shown in Figure B-4.
Figure B-4 Configuring the processor affinity using the Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Management Studio Server Properties dialog box
Once the processor affinity is set, soft-NUMA can be configured as desired using a registry setting. In HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Microsoft SQL Server\90\NodeConfiguration\Nodex, where the first node is Node0, the second node is Node1, and so on, a single DWORD named CPUMask has a value set to the hexadecimal representation of the binary affinity mask. For example, if you want to assign two NUMA memory nodes, each with two processors, to the first instance from the above scenario, you would create registry entries for Node0 and Node1 and set the CPUMask values to 0x03 hexadecimal (00000011 binary) and 0x0c hexadecimal (00001100 binary), respectively. To assign a single NUMA memory node (with all four processors) to the second instance, create a registry entry for Node2 and
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