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Using Scrollable Cursors
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Some application specifications might require you to scroll forward and backward among a set of results. For example, it might be necessary to retrieve a set of results, and then, based on the user input, scroll either forward or backward through the result set. This is a situation in which cursors might be the most efficient choice. By being able to scroll forward and backward through the results, you can eliminate the need to perform multiple queries. The following fetch options can be used when working with a scrollable cursor:
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Fetch First Retrieves the first row in the cursor. Fetch Last Retrieves the last row in the cursor. Fetch Next Retrieves the next row in the cursor.
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Fetch Prior Retrieves the row before the last one fetched, unless you have just opened the cursor, or you are positioned at the first record. Fetch Absolute n Retrieves the position specified with the n parameter, which can be set as a positive integer, negative integer, or a zero. If n is set with a positive value, then it will move that number of places from the first row. If n is set with a negative value, then it will move that number of places from the last row. If n is set with a zero, then no rows are fetched. Fetch Relative n Retrieves the position specified, relative to the last row that was fetched. If n is set with a positive integer, then it will move that number of places after the last row is fetched. If n is set with a negative value, then it will move that number of places before the last row is fetched. If n is set with a zero, the same row is fetched again.
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Designing a Cursor and Caching Strategy
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The scrollable cursor can be specified by using the SCROLL option instead of the FORWARD_ONLY option. For example, the following Transact-SQL can be used to create a scrollable cursor named crsrScroll:
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DECLARE crsrScroll CURSOR SCROLL FOR SELECT [Name], ProductNumber, StandardCost, ListPrice FROM Production.Product
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SQL Server 2005 offers a built-in function named @@CURSOR_ROWS that can be used to return the number of rows in a cursor. For example, the following Transact-SQL statement can be used to return the product number along with the number of rows in the cursor:
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SELECT ProductNumber, @@CURSOR_ROWS FROM Production.Product
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Processing on a Row-by-Row Basis
When there is a need to perform processing, such as the execution of a stored procedure on a row-by-row basis, it is possible for a cursor to perform more quickly than a set-based alternative. For example, the following stored procedure can be used to loop through all the products in the AdventureWorks database and, based on the value of an input variable, execute the stored procedure sp_SomeStoredProcedure. The cursor will then perform an INSERT into the Production.ProductCostHistory table if the stored procedure was executed successfully.
DECLARE crsrRowByRow CURSOR FAST_FORWARD FOR SELECT ProductNumber, ListPrice, StandardCost FROM Production.Product OPEN crsrRowByRow FETCH NEXT FROM crsrProducts INTO @ProdNum, @Listprice, @StdCost WHILE @@FETCH_STATUS = 0 BEGIN IF (@inVar = "Some Value") BEGIN EXEC @retcode = sp_SomeStoredProcedure @product_num = @ProdNum, @list_price = @Listprice,
Lesson 3: Designing Efficient Cursors
@sp_var = @inVar END IF @retcode = <> 0 BEGIN INSERT INTO Production.ProductCostHistory VALUES (@StartDate, @EndDate, @StdCost, GetDate()) END FETCH NEXT FROM crsrProducts INTO @ProdNum, @LstPrice, @StdCost END CLOSE crsrRowByRow DEALLOCATE crsrRowByRow
It is possible that the cursor named crsrRowByRow would execute more quickly than a setbased alternative. This would depend on various factors, such as the number of records to be processed and the efficiency of the code in the stored procedure. The only way to know for sure would be to compare execution times for both methods.
Using Dynamic SQL
You can use dynamic SQL to build your cursors. This is done in the same way you would issue any SQL statement using dynamic SQL. You will need to include the DECLARE statement inside the dynamic SQL string. For example, the following Transact-SQL can be used to create a cursor named crsrProducts using dynamic SQL:
DECLARE @Color nvarchar(15) SET @Color = 'Black' DECLARE @sql nvarchar(255) SELECT @sql = 'DECLARE crsrProducts CURSOR FAST_FORWARD FOR ' + 'SELECT ProductNumber, ListPrice,StandardCost '+ 'FROM Production.Product ' + 'WHERE Color = ''' + @Color + ''';' + 'OPEN crsrProducts ' 'WHILE (@@FETCH_STATUS = 0) ' + 'BEGIN ' + 'FETCH NEXT FROM crsrProducts ' + 'END; ' 'CLOSE crsrProducts ' + 'DEALLOCATE crsrProducts' EXEC sp_executesql @sql
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