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Designing the Physical Database
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The wildcard characters for pattern matching include the underscore ( _ ), which des ignates one single value that can be a character, number, or special character; and a percent symbol (%), which designates any number of characters, numbers, or special characters. For example, a table-level check constraint to validate an e-mail address might look like the following:
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CONSTRAINT chkEmail CHECK (Email like '%@%.[a-z][a-z][a-z]' or Email like '%@%.[a-z][a-z].[az][a-z]')
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A column-level check constraint for the EmployeeID might look like the following:
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CHECK (EmployeeID like '[A-Z][0-9][0-9][0-9][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z]')
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Constraints and pattern matching
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Creating pattern matches can become quite complex. For more information on the operators and wildcards that are allowed, please refer to the following Books Online articles: CHECK Constraints at ms-help://MS.SQLCC.v9/MS.SQLSVR.v9.en/udb9/html/6d5373b2-0a52-44ba-9ce9 ad4178cc09b8.htm and CREATE RULE (Transact-SQL) at ms-help://MS.SQLCC.v9/MS.SQLSVR.v9.en/ tsqlref9/html/b016a289-3a74-46b1-befc-a13183be51e4.htm.
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Check constraints are defined within the table definition and cannot be reused. Rules provide the same function as check constraints, except they are a separately created object. Because rules are not associated with a specific table or column when created, they cannot reference columns or tables in their definition. Variables are used instead as placeholders. The same features or complex comparison using AND, OR, and NOT as well as pattern matching are available for rules. You can implement the two preceding check constraints as rules as follows:
CREATE RULE EmailValidator AS @value like '%@%.[a-z][a-z][a-z]' or @value like '%@%.[a-z][a-z].[a-z][a-z]'; CREATE RULE EmployeeIDValidator AS @column like '[A-Z][0-9][0-9][0-9][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z][A-Z]';
Lesson 1: Designing Database Tables
You then bind rules to columns or user-defined data types by using the sp_bindrule system stored procedure.
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Binding rules
For more information about binding rules, refer to the Books Online article CREATE RULE (Trans act-SQL) at ms-help://MS.SQLCC.v9/MS.SQLSVR.v9.en/tsqlref9/html/b016a289-3a74-46b1-befc a13183be51e4.htm.
Defaults
A default enables SQL Server to write a value to a column when the user doesn t specify a value. Common uses for defaults are when there is either a typical value or common value, but it is not necessarily the only possible choice. For example, the company we have been creating tables for might be a retail store located in Grand Prairie, TX. Although the large majority of customers would have an address with a city of Grand Prairie, customers might still come into the store from nearby Arlington or Irving. For example, adding a default constraint to the city column in the CustomerAddress table looks like the following:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress
(CustomerAddressID int AddressType char(4) PrimaryAddressFlag bit AddressLine1 varchar(30) AddressLine2 varchar(30) AddressLine3 varchar(30) City varchar(50) StateProvinceID int PostalCode char(10) CountryID int IDENTITY(1,1),
NOT NULL,
NOT NULL,
NOT NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
NOT NULL DEFAULT 'Grand Prairie',
NULL,
NULL,
NULL)
Unique Constraints
A unique constraint forces a column or combination of columns to not allow dupli cate values. An example of this type of business rule is that each customer name must be unique.
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Designing the Physical Database
A unique constraint applied to the CustomerName column in the customer table looks like the following:
CREATE TABLE dbo.Customer
(CustomerID int IDENTITY(1,1),
CustomerName varchar(50) NOT NULL UNIQUE NONCLUSTERED,
CreditLine smallmoney NULL,
OutstandingBalance smallmoney NULL,
AvailableCredit AS (CreditLine - OutstandingBalance),
CreationDate datetime NOT NULL)
Primary Key Constraints
Choosing a primary key constraint is the single most important decision you can make for the structure of a table. A primary key defines the column or combination of columns that enable a row to be uniquely identified. A primary key can be implemented on the StateProvince table as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.StateProvince (StateProvinceID int StateProvince varchar(50) IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL) PRIMARY KEY,
Every table should have a primary key. The primary key defines the column or col umns that enable you to uniquely identify a row within the table. A primary key should also be an internal structure within a database that does not carry any busi ness meaning. This enables a piece of data to be uniquely defined while also ensuring that the value does not have to be changed. Having the value of a primary key remain static is important to the implementation of foreign keys so that a change does not have to be propagated across multiple tables.
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