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Designing the Physical Database
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2. In the database of your choice, construct a CREATE TABLE statement for the Customer table, as follows:
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CREATE TABLE dbo.Customer
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(CustomerID int IDENTITY(1,1),
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CustomerName varchar(50) NOT NULL,
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CreditLine smallmoney NULL,
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OutstandingBalance smallmoney NULL,
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AvailableCredit AS (CreditLine - OutstandingBalance),
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CreationDate datetime NOT NULL)
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3. Construct a CREATE TABLE statement for the StateProvince table, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.StateProvince (StateProvinceID int StateProvince varchar(50) IDENTITY(1,1), NOT NULL)
4. Construct a CREATE TABLE statement for the Country table, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.Country
(CountryID int Country varchar(50) IDENTITY(1,1),
NOT NULL)
Exercise 2: Implementing Constraints
In this exercise, you apply a variety of constraints to the Customer, CustomerAddress, StateProvince, and Country tables so that they more closely match what you might see in an actual production environment. 1. Launch SSMS, connect to your instance, and open a new query window. 2. Before you begin this exercise, drop all the tables that you created previously by using the following batch:
DROP DROP DROP DROP TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress;
dbo.Customer;
dbo.Country;
dbo.StateProvince;
3. Re-create the Country and StateProvince tables with primary keys, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.StateProvince
(StateProvinceID int StateProvince varchar(50) CREATE TABLE dbo.Country
(CountryID int Country varchar(50) IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL);
PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
NOT NULL);
4. Create a new table for the list of allowed address types, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.AddressType
(AddressTypeID tinyint AddressType varchar(20) IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
NOT NULL);
Lesson 1: Designing Database Tables
5. Create the CustomerAddress table with a primary key and enforce referential integrity for the StateProvinceID, CountryID, and AddressType columns, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress
(CustomerAddressID int AddressType char(4) dbo.AddressType(AddressTypeID),
PrimaryAddressFlag bit AddressLine1 varchar(30) AddressLine2 varchar(30) AddressLine3 varchar(30) City varchar(50) StateProvinceID int dbo.StateProvince(StateProvinceID),
PostalCode char(10) CountryID int dbo.Country(CountryID));
IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (AddressType) REFERENCES
NOT NULL,
NOT NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
NOT NULL,
NULL FOREIGN KEY (StateProvinceID) REFERENCES
NULL,
NULL FOREIGN KEY (CountryID) REFERENCES
NOTE
Data type mismatches
You should have received an error message when trying to create this table. Before reading on, can you explain why The AddressType column is defined as a char(4), but the foreign key references an integer column in the AddressType table. A character value cannot be implicitly converted to a tinyint data type for comparison. Although the column name in the CustomerAddress table does not have to match the column name in the AddressType table, the data types must be com patible. However, for consistency and readability, the column names should match.
6. Fix the error by redefining the CustomerAddress table as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress
(CustomerAddressID int AddressTypeID tinyint dbo.AddressType(AddressTypeID),
PrimaryAddressFlag bit AddressLine1 varchar(30) AddressLine2 varchar(30) AddressLine3 varchar(30) City varchar(50) StateProvinceID int dbo.StateProvince(StateProvinceID),
PostalCode char(10) CountryID int dbo.Country(CountryID));
IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (AddressTypeID) REFERENCES
NOT NULL,
NOT NULL,
NULL,
NULL,
NOT NULL,
NULL FOREIGN KEY (StateProvinceID) REFERENCES
NULL,
NULL FOREIGN KEY (CountryID) REFERENCES
7. Create the Customer table with a primary key, enforcing no duplicate cus tomer names, enforcing a credit line between 0 and 50,000, defaulting the
12
Designing the Physical Database
available balance to 0, and defaulting the creation date to the current date and time, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.Customer
(CustomerID int IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
CustomerName varchar(50) NOT NULL UNIQUE NONCLUSTERED,
CreditLine smallmoney NULL CHECK (CreditLine >= 0 AND CreditLine <=
50000),
OutstandingBalance smallmoney NULL DEFAULT 0,
AvailableCredit AS (CreditLine - OutstandingBalance),
CreationDate datetime NOT NULL DEFAULT getdate());
8. The mini customer database is looking pretty good at this point, but there is one problem. Customers can be entered, and addresses can be entered, but there is no way to associate a customer to an address. So you can create a table that provides an association between the customer and customer address tables, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerToCustomerAddress
(CustomerID int NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (CustomerID) REFERENCES
dbo.Customer(CustomerID),
CustomerAddressID int NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (CustomerAddressID) REFERENCES
dbo.CustomerAddress(CustomerAddressID),
CONSTRAINT PK_CustomerToCustomerAddress PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED(CustomerID,
CustomerAddressID));
NOTE
Cross-reference tables
The CustomerToCustomerAddress table is generally referred to as a cross-reference table. The Customer and CustomerAddress tables could have been linked together by adding a CustomerID column to the CustomerAddress table. The cross-reference table enables flexibility in the design as well as minimizing the amount of data that needs to be stored. You could have multiple customers at the same address (for example, with multiple people in the same household). If the CustomerID column were added to the CustomerAddress table, each customer at the same address would require the address to be duplicated in the CustomerAddress table. However, the cross-reference table enables a single row in the address table to be associated to one or more customers. The opposite is also true where a single customer could be associated to multiple addresses.
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