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Designing Database Server Security Policies
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Using the Local Service Account
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The Local Service account is a special built-in account whose default rights and access permissions are equivalent to those of a member of the Users group. When this account is used as a service account, the minimal level of privileges assigned to it pro vides an extra level of protection if the account is compromised. The cost of increased security is lower functionality; services that run as the Local Service account can access network resources only as a null session with no credentials.
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Using the Network Service Account
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Similar to the Local Service account, the Network Service account is a special built-in account whose default rights and access permissions to local objects are equivalent to those of a member of the Users group. Unlike the Local Service account, however, the Network Service account can access network resources by using the credentials of the local computer s computer account. (The local computer s computer account includes rights and permissions that exceed those needed for the SQL Server and SQL Server Agent services. For this reason, Microsoft recommends that you do not use the Network Service account as a service account for these services.)
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The Local System account is a built-in user account with the most powerful set of rights and permissions on the system and is a common target for exploitation by attackers. In production environments, you should generally avoid using the Local System account as the service account for SQL Server services. For increased security, run SQL Server services under a Windows account with the lowest required privileges.
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After you specify an account for each SQL Server service, SQL Server Setup creates Windows group accounts for the different SQL Server services and adds the service accounts to these group accounts. These newly created user groups are given the min imum rights and permissions required to run the service. These groups are shown in Table 4-3.
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Exam Tip You need to recognize and understand the function of the service group accounts for the 70-443 exam. If you want to change the service account associated with a SQL Server service after Setup, the best way to ensure that the minimum rights and permissions for the service are granted to the account is by adding that account to the relevant Windows group.
Lesson 3: Reducing the Attack Surface of SQL Server 2005
Table 4-3
Windows Group Accounts for SQL Server 2005
SQL Server Service SQL Server
Associated Windows Group Account SQLServer2005MS SQLUser$ InstanceName
Rights and Permissions Granted Log on as a service.
Act as part of the operating sys
tem (only on Windows 2000).
Log on as a batch job.
Replace a process-level token.
Bypass traverse checking.
Adjust memory quotas for a
process.
Permission to start SQL Server
Active Directory Helper.
Permission to start SQL Writer.
SQL Server Agent
SQLServer2005SQL AgentUser$Instance Name
Log on as a service.
Act as part of the operating sys
tem (on Windows 2000 only).
Log on as a batch job.
Replace a process-level token.
Bypass traverse checking.
Adjust memory quotas for a
process.
Analysis Server Report Server
SQLServer2005MSOL APUser$InstanceName SQLServer2005Report ServerUser$Instance Name SQLServer2005Notifi cationServicesUser
Log on as a service. Log on as a service.
Notification Ser vices
N/A (configured after Setup).
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Designing Database Server Security Policies
Table 4-3
Windows Group Accounts for SQL Server 2005
SQL Server Service Integration Services
Associated Windows Group Account SQLServer2005 DTSUser
Rights and Permissions Granted Log on as a service. Permission to write to application event log. Bypass traverse checking. Create global objects. Impersonate a client after authen tication.
Full-Text Search
SQLServer2005MSFT ESQLUser$Instance Name SQLServer2005SQL BrowserUser SQLServer2005MS SQLServerADHelper User$InstanceName N/A
Log on as a service.
SQL Server Browser SQL Server Active Directory Helper SQL Writer
Log on as a service. None.
None.
Security Best Practices
Use the following recommendations to further minimize security risks to your SQL Server installation.
Enhance Physical Security
Do not overlook the importance of the physical environment for determining the security of your SQL Server installation. In particular, you should consider the follow ing recommendations:
Place the server in a room that is inaccessible to unauthorized persons.
Lesson 3: Reducing the Attack Surface of SQL Server 2005
Place computers that host a database in a physically protected location ideally a locked computer room with monitored flood detection and fire detection or suppression systems. Install databases in the secure zone of the corporate intranet and never directly connected to the Internet. Back up all data regularly and store copies in a secure offsite location.
Use Firewalls
Firewalls are integral to securing the SQL Server installation. Firewalls are most effec tive if you follow these guidelines:
Put a firewall between the server and the Internet. Divide the network into security zones separated by firewalls. Block all traffic and then selectively admit only what is required. Always block packets addressed to TCP port 1433 (monitored by the default instance) and UDP port 1434 (monitored by one of the instances on the com puter) on your perimeter firewall. If named instances are listening on additional ports, block them, too. In a multitier environment, use multiple firewalls to create screened subnets. When you are installing the server inside a Windows domain, configure interior firewalls to permit Windows Authentication. Open ports used by Kerberos or NTLM authentication. If your application uses distributed transactions, you might have to configure the firewall to allow Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MS DTC) traf fic to flow between separate MS DTC instances, and between the MS DTC and resource managers such as SQL Server.
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