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Selecting a development process
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Let s first get an overview of the available tools, the artifacts they use as source input, and the output that is produced. Figure 2.1 shows various import and
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UML Model XML/XMI AndroMDA Persistent Class Java Source Mapping Metadata Annotations Data Access Object Java Source <hbm2dao> Documentation HTML <hbm2doc>
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<annotationcon guration> <hbm2java> <hbm2java> Hibernate Metamodel <hbm2ddl> <hbm2hbmxml> <jdbccon guration> <con guration> Database Schema Mapping Metadata XML
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<hbm2cfgxml>
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Input and output of the tools used for Hibernate development
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export tasks for Ant; all the functionality is also available with the Hibernate Tools plug-ins for Eclipse. Refer to this diagram while reading this chapter.1
NOTE
Hibernate Tools for Eclipse IDE The Hibernate Tools are plug-ins for the Eclipse IDE (part of the JBoss IDE for Eclipse a set of wizards, editors, and extra views in Eclipse that help you develop EJB3, Hibernate, JBoss Seam, and other Java applications based on JBoss middleware). The features for forward and reverse engineering are equivalent to the Ant-based tools. The additional Hibernate Console view allows you to execute ad hoc Hibernate queries (HQL and Criteria) against your database and to browse the result graphically. The Hibernate Tools XML editor supports automatic completion of mapping files, including class, property, and even table and column names. The graphical tools were still in development and available as a beta release during the writing of this book, however, so any screenshots would be obsolete with future releases of the software. The documentation of the Hibernate Tools contains many screenshots and detailed project setup instructions that you can easily adapt to create your first Hello World program with the Eclipse IDE.
The following development scenarios are common:
Top down In top-down development, you start with an existing domain model, its implementation in Java, and (ideally) complete freedom with respect to the database schema. You must create mapping metadata either with XML files or by annotating the Java source and then optionally let Hibernate s hbm2ddl tool generate the database schema. In the absence of an existing database schema, this is the most comfortable development style for most Java developers. You may even use the Hibernate Tools to automatically refresh the database schema on every application restart in development. Bottom up Conversely, bottom-up development begins with an existing database schema and data model. In this case, the easiest way to proceed is to use the reverse-engineering tools to extract metadata from the database. This metadata can be used to generate XML mapping files, with hbm2hbmxml for example. With hbm2java, the Hibernate mapping metadata is used to generate Java persistent classes, and even data access objects in other words, a skeleton for a Java persistence layer. Or, instead of writing to XML
Note that AndroMDA, a tool that generates POJO source code from UML diagram files, isn t strictly considered part of the common Hibernate toolset, so it isn t discussed in this chapter. See the community area on the Hibernate website for more information about the Hibernate module for AndroMDA.
Starting a Hibernate project
mapping files, annotated Java source code (EJB 3.0 entity classes) can be produced directly by the tools. However, not all class association details and Java-specific metainformation can be automatically generated from an SQL database schema with this strategy, so expect some manual work.
Middle out The Hibernate XML mapping metadata provides sufficient information to completely deduce the database schema and to generate the Java source code for the persistence layer of the application. Furthermore, the XML mapping document isn t too verbose. Hence, some architects and developers prefer middle-out development, where they begin with handwritten Hibernate XML mapping files, and then generate the database schema using hbm2ddl and Java classes using hbm2java. The Hibernate XML mapping files are constantly updated during development, and other artifacts are generated from this master definition. Additional business logic or database objects are added through subclassing and auxiliary DDL. This development style can be recommended only for the seasoned Hibernate expert. Meet in the middle The most difficult scenario is combining existing Java classes and an existing database schema. In this case, there is little that the Hibernate toolset can do to help. It is, of course, not possible to map arbitrary Java domain models to a given schema, so this scenario usually requires at least some refactoring of the Java classes, database schema, or both. The mapping metadata will almost certainly need to be written by hand and in XML files (though it might be possible to use annotations if there is a close match). This can be an incredibly painful scenario, and it is, fortunately, exceedingly rare.
We now explore the tools and their configuration options in more detail and set up a work environment for typical Hibernate application development. You can follow our instructions step by step and create the same environment, or you can take only the bits and pieces you need, such as the Ant build scripts. The development process we assume first is top down, and we ll walk through a Hibernate project that doesn t involve any legacy data schemas or Java code. After that, you ll migrate the code to JPA and EJB 3.0, and then you ll start a project bottom up by reverse-engineering from an existing database schema.
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