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Starting a project
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JBoss AS certainly has, so you can skip the last two properties and just specify a name for the SessionFactory.
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JNDI with Tomcat Tomcat comes bundled with a read-only JNDI context, which isn t writable from application-level code after the startup of the servlet container. Hibernate can t bind to this context: You have to either use a full context implementation (like the Sun FS context) or disable JNDI binding of the SessionFactory by omitting the session_ factory_name property in the configuration.
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The SessionFactory is bound to JNDI when you build it, which means when Configuration.buildSessionFactory() is called. To keep your application code portable, you may want to implement this build and the lookup in HibernateUtil, and continue using that helper class in your data access code, as shown in listing 2.18.
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Listing 2.18 HibernateUtil for JNDI lookup of SessionFactory
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public class HibernateUtil { private static Context jndiContext; static { try { // Build it and bind it to JNDI new Configuration().buildSessionFactory(); // Get a handle to the registry (reads jndi.properties) jndiContext = new InitialContext(); } catch (Throwable ex) { throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex); } } public static SessionFactory getSessionFactory(String sfName) { SessionFactory sf; try { sf = (SessionFactory) jndiContext.lookup(sfName); } catch (NamingException ex) { throw new RuntimeException(ex); } return sf; } }
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Alternatively, you can look up the SessionFactory directly in application code with a JNDI call. However, you still need at least the new Configuration().buildSessionFactory() line of startup code somewhere in your application. One way to remove this last line of Hibernate startup code, and to completely eliminate the HibernateUtil class, is to deploy Hibernate as a JMX service (or by using JPA and Java EE).
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The Java world is full of specifications, standards, and implementations of these. A relatively new, but important, standard is in its first version: the Java Management Extensions (JMX). JMX is about the management of systems components or, better, of system services. Where does Hibernate fit into this new picture Hibernate, when deployed in an application server, makes use of other services, like managed transactions and pooled datasources. Also, with Hibernate JMX integration, Hibernate can be a managed JMX service, depended on and used by others. The JMX specification defines the following components:
The JMX MBean A reusable component (usually infrastructural) that exposes an interface for management (administration) The JMX container Mediates generic access (local or remote) to the MBean The JMX client May be used to administer any MBean via the JMX container
An application server with support for JMX (such as JBoss AS) acts as a JMX container and allows an MBean to be configured and initialized as part of the application server startup process. Your Hibernate service may be packaged and deployed as a JMX MBean; the bundled interface for this is org.hibernate.jmx .HibernateService. You can start, stop, and monitor the Hibernate core through this interface with any standard JMX client. A second MBean interface that can be deployed optionally is org.hibernate.jmx.StatisticsService, which lets you enable and monitor Hibernate s runtime behavior with a JMX client. How JMX services and MBeans are deployed is vendor-specific. For example, on JBoss Application Server, you only have to add a jboss-service.xml file to your application s EAR to deploy Hibernate as a managed JMX service. Instead of explaining every option here, see the reference documentation for JBoss Application Server. It contains a section that shows Hibernate integration and deployment step by step (http://docs.jboss.org/jbossas). Configuration and
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deployment on other application servers that support JMX should be similar, and you can adapt and port the JBoss configuration files.
Summary
In this chapter, you have completed a first Hibernate project. We looked at how Hibernate XML mapping files are written and what APIs you can call in Hibernate to interact with the database. We then introduced Java Persistence and EJB 3.0 and explained how it can simplify even the most basic Hibernate application with automatic metadata scanning, standardized configuration and packaging, and dependency injection in managed EJB components. If you have to get started with a legacy database, you can use the Hibernate toolset to reverse engineer XML mapping files from an existing schema. Or, if you work with JDK 5.0 and/or EJB 3.0, you can generate Java application code directly from an SQL database. Finally, we looked at more advanced Hibernate integration and configuration options in a Java EE environment integration that is already done for you if you rely on JPA or EJB 3.0. A high-level overview and comparison between Hibernate functionality and Java Persistence is shown in table 2.1. (You can find a similar comparison table at the end of each chapter.)
Table 2.1 Hibernate and JPA comparison Hibernate Core Integrates with everything, everywhere. Flexible, but sometimes configuration is complex. Java Persistence and EJB 3.0 Works in Java EE and Java SE. Simple and standardized configuration; no extra integration or special configuration is necessary in Java EE environments. JPA provider scans for XML mapping files and annotated classes automatically. Standardized and stable interfaces, with a sufficient subset of Hibernate functionality. Easy fallback to Hibernate APIs is possible.
Configuration requires a list of XML mapping files or annotated classes. Proprietary but powerful. Continually improved native programming interfaces and query language.
In the next chapter, we introduce a more complex example application that we ll work with throughout the rest of the book. You ll see how to design and implement a domain model, and which mapping metadata options are the best choices in a larger project.
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