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Domain models and metadata
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This chapter covers
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The CaveatEmptor example application POJO design for rich domain models Object/relational mapping metadata options
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Domain models and metadata
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The Hello World example in the previous chapter introduced you to Hibernate; however, it isn t useful for understanding the requirements of real-world applications with complex data models. For the rest of the book, we use a much more sophisticated example application CaveatEmptor, an online auction system to demonstrate Hibernate and Java Persistence. We start our discussion of the application by introducing a programming model for persistent classes. Designing and implementing the persistent classes is a multistep process that we ll examine in detail. First, you ll learn how to identify the business entities of a problem domain. You create a conceptual model of these entities and their attributes, called a domain model, and you implement it in Java by creating persistent classes. We spend some time exploring exactly what these Java classes should look like, and we also look at the persistence capabilities of the classes, and how this aspect influences the design and implementation. We then explore mapping metadata options the ways you can tell Hibernate how your persistent classes and their properties relate to database tables and columns. This can involve writing XML documents that are eventually deployed along with the compiled Java classes and are read by Hibernate at runtime. Another option is to use JDK 5.0 metadata annotations, based on the EJB 3.0 standard, directly in the Java source code of the persistent classes. After reading this chapter, you ll know how to design the persistent parts of your domain model in complex real-world projects, and what mapping metadata option you ll primarily prefer and use. Finally, in the last (probably optional) section of this chapter, we look at Hibernate s capability for representation independence. A relatively new feature in Hibernate allows you to create a domain model in Java that is fully dynamic, such as a model without any concrete classes but only HashMaps. Hibernate also supports a domain model representation with XML documents. Let s start with the example application.
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The CaveatEmptor online auction application demonstrates ORM techniques and Hibernate functionality; you can download the source code for the application from http://caveatemptor.hibernate.org. We won t pay much attention to the user interface in this book (it could be web based or a rich client); we ll concentrate instead on the data access code. However, when a design decision about data
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access code that has consequences for the user interface has to be made, we ll naturally consider both. In order to understand the design issues involved in ORM, let s pretend the CaveatEmptor application doesn t yet exist, and that you re building it from scratch. Our first task would be analysis.
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Analyzing the business domain
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A software development effort begins with analysis of the problem domain (assuming that no legacy code or legacy database already exists). At this stage, you, with the help of problem domain experts, identify the main entities that are relevant to the software system. Entities are usually notions understood by users of the system: payment, customer, order, item, bid, and so forth. Some entities may be abstractions of less concrete things the user thinks about, such as a pricing algorithm, but even these would usually be understandable to the user. All these entities are found in the conceptual view of the business, which we sometimes call a business model. Developers and architects of object-oriented software analyze the business model and create an object-oriented model, still at the conceptual level (no Java code). This model may be as simple as a mental image existing only in the mind of the developer, or it may be as elaborate as a UML class diagram created by a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool like ArgoUML or TogetherJ. A simple model expressed in UML is shown in figure 3.1. This model contains entities that you re bound to find in any typical auction system: category, item, and user. The entities and their relationships (and perhaps their attributes) are all represented by this model of the problem domain. We call this kind of object-oriented model of entities from the problem domain, encompassing only those entities that are of interest to the user, a domain model. It s an abstract view of the real world. The motivating goal behind the analysis and design of a domain model is to capture the essence of the business information for the application s purpose. Developers and architects may, instead of an object-oriented model, also start the application design with a data model (possibly expressed with an Entity-Relationship diagram). We usually say that, with regard to persistence, there is little
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