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Routing with Windows Server 2003
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Route Filters You can configure route filters on each RIP interface so that the only routes considered for addition to the routing table are those that reflect reachable network IDs within the internetwork. For example, if an organization is using subnets of the private network ID 10.0.0.0, route filtering can be used so that the RIP routers dis card all routes except those within the 10.0.0.0 network ID. You configure route filters on the Security tab of the RIP Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-32.
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Neighbors By default, RIP either broadcasts (RIP version 1 or RIP version 2) or mul ticasts (RIP version 2 only) announcements. To prevent RIP traffic from being received by any node except neighboring RIP routers, the server running Routing And Remote Access can unicast RIP announcements. You configure RIP neighbors on the Neighbors tab of the RIP Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 9-33.
Figure 9-33
Configuring RIP unicast message recipients, or neighbors
OSPF Overview
OSPF is designed for exchanging routing information within a large or very large internetwork. The biggest advantage of OSPF is that it is efficient; OSPF requires little network overhead even in very large internetworks. The biggest disadvantage of OSPF is its com plexity; it requires proper planning and is difficult to configure and administer. OSPF uses a Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to compute routes in the routing table. The SPF algorithm computes the shortest (least cost) path between the router and all the networks of the internetwork. SPF-calculated routes are always loopfree. Instead of exchanging routing table entries like RIP routers, OSPF routers maintain a map of the internetwork that is updated after any change to the network topology. This map, called the link state database, is synchronized between all the OSPF routers and is used to compute the routes in the routing table. Neighboring OSPF routers form an adjacency, which is a logical relationship between routers to synchronize the link state database.
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Routing with Windows Server 2003
Changes to internetwork topology are efficiently flooded across the entire internetwork to ensure that the link state database on each router is synchronized and accurate at all times. Upon receiving changes to the link state database, the routing table is recalculated. As the size of the link state database increases, memory requirements and route com putation times increase. To address this scaling problem, OSPF divides the internetwork into areas (collections of contiguous networks) that are connected to each other through a backbone area. Each router keeps a link state database for only those areas that are connected to the router. Area border routers (ABRs) connect the backbone area to other areas. To further reduce the amount of routing information flooded into areas, OSPF allows the use of stub areas. A stub area can contain a single entry and exit point (a single ABR), or multiple ABRs when any of the ABRs can be used to reach external route destinations. Figure 9-34 shows a diagram of an OSPF internetwork.
Area border routers
Backbone area
Area 2
Area 1
Figure 9-34
A sample OSPF topology
OSPF vs. RIP
OSPF has the following advantages over RIP:
OSPF can scale to large or very large internetworks. OSPF has no hop limit.
Lesson 4
Configuring and Managing Routing Protocols
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OSPF has faster convergence times. OSPF uses less network bandwidth. OSPF-calculated routes are always loopfree.
Understanding DHCP Relay Agent
DHCP Relay Agent is a routing protocol that allows client computers to obtain an address from a DHCP server on a remote subnet. Typically, DHCP clients broadcast DHCPDiscover packets that are then received and answered by a DHCP server on the same subnet. Because routers block broadcasts, DHCP clients and servers must nor mally be located on the same physical subnet. However, two methods can help you work around this limitation. First, if the routers separating the DHCP server and clients are RFC 1542 compliant, the routers can be configured for Boot Protocol (BOOTP) forwarding. Through BOOTP forwarding, rout ers forward DHCP broadcasts between clients and servers and inform servers of the originating subnet of the DHCP requests. This process allows DHCP servers to assign addresses to the remote clients from the appropriate scope. The second way to allow remote communication between DHCP servers and clients is to configure a DHCP relay agent on the subnet containing the remote clients. DHCP relay agents intercept DHCP Discover packets and forward them to a remote DHCP server whose address has been preconfigured. Although DHCP Relay Agent is config ured through Routing And Remote Access, the computer hosting the agent does not need to be functioning as an actual router between subnets. Figure 9-35 shows a network topology with six subnets.
Exam Tip Expect to see a topology question about DHCP Relay Agent and RFC 1542 compliant routers on the exam.
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