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To perform recursion properly, the DNS server first needs to know where to begin searching for names in the DNS domain namespace. This information is provided in the form of root hints, a list of preliminary resource records used by the DNS service to locate servers authoritative for the root of the DNS domain namespace tree. By default, DNS servers running Windows Server 2003 use a preconfigured root hints file, Cache.dns, that is stored in the WINDOWS\System32\Dns folder on the server computer. The contents of this file are preloaded into server memory when the service is started and contain pointer information to root servers for the DNS namespace. Fig ure 4-3 shows the default root hints file.
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Configuring DNS Servers and Clients
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Figure 4-3 Root hints file
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In Windows Server 2003, the root hints file already contains addresses of root servers in the Internet DNS namespace. Therefore, if you are using the DNS Server service in Windows Server 2003 to resolve Internet-based DNS names, the root hints file needs no manual configuration. If, however, you are using the DNS service on a private network, you can edit or replace this file with similar records that point to your own internal root DNS servers. Furthermore, for a computer that is hosting a root DNS server, you should not use root hints at all. In this scenario, Windows Server 2003 automatically deletes the Cache.dns file used for root hints.
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The following example illustrates default DNS query behavior. In the example, the cli ent queries its preferred DNS server, which then performs recursion by querying hier archically superior DNS servers. In the example, the DNS client and all DNS servers are assumed to have empty caches. In the example shown in Figure 4-4, a client somewhere on the Internet needs to resolve the name example.lucernepublishing.com to an IP address.
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Iterative queries 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 8 Resolver
Understanding DNS in Windows Server 2003 Networks
4-21
"" Name Server
NameServer1
com Name Server
lucernepublishing.com Name Server
Recursive query
Figure 4-4
Illustration of recursion
When the DNS Client service on the client computer begins the query process, the fol lowing events take place: 1. The client contacts NameServer1 with a query for example.lucernepublishing.com. 2. NameServer1 checks its cache and zones for the answer but does not find it, so it contacts a server authoritative for the Internet (that is, a root server) with a query for example.lucernepublishing.com. 3. The server at the root of the Internet does not know the answer, so it responds with a referral to a server authoritative for the .com domain. 4. NameServer1 contacts a server authoritative for the .com domain with a query for example.lucernepublishing.com. 5. The server authoritative for the .com domain does not know the exact answer, so it responds with a referral to a server authoritative for the lucernepublishing.com domain. 6. NameServer1 contacts the server authoritative for the lucernepublishing.com domain with a query for example.lucernepublishing.com. 7. The server authoritative for the lucernepublishing.com domain does know the answer. It responds with the requested IP address. 8. NameServer1 responds to the client query with the IP address for example.lucerne publishing.com.
4-22
4
Configuring DNS Servers and Clients
Query Response Types
Queries can return a variety of answers to the client, including these, which are the most common:
An authoritative answer A positive answer A referral answer A negative answer
An authoritative answer is a positive answer returned to the client and delivered with the authority bit set in the DNS message. This authority bit indicates that the answer was obtained from a server with direct authority for the queried name. A positive answer contains the queried resource record matching the queried name and record type specified in the original query message. A referral answer contains additional resource records not specified by name or type in the query. This type of answer is returned to the client if the recursion process is not supported by the DNS server. These records are meant to act as helpful reference answers that the client can use to continue the query by using iteration. For example, if the queried host name is www and no A resource record but only a CNAME resource record for this name is found in the zone, the DNS server can include this CNAME information when responding to the client. If the client is able to perform iter ation, it can make additional queries using this referral information in an attempt to fully resolve the name for itself. A negative answer from the server can indicate that one of two possible results was encountered while the server attempted to process and recursively resolve the query fully and authoritatively:
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