c# qr code generator dll Designing a WINS Structure in Visual C#

Generating QR Code in Visual C# Designing a WINS Structure

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Designing a WINS Structure
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WINS Proxy
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Non-WINS client
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Subnet A (no WINS Server) Router WINS Server
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Subnet B
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Figure 7-5 Using a WINS proxy
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On most networks a WINS proxy is not necessary because most computers are WINSenabled. In Figure 7-5, if a client computer, which is not WINS-enabled, attempted to resolve a NetBIOS name, the following would occur: 1. The non-WINS client would send a name query broadcast that would be intercepted by the WINS proxy. 2. The WINS proxy would check its cache for an entry of the NetBIOS name and associated IP address mapping. 3. If the NetBIOS name is in cache, the WINS proxy would send the IP address to the non-WINS client. 4. If the NetBIOS name is not in cache, the WINS proxy would send the query to the WINS server it is configured to use for names resolution. 5. If a WINS server is not available on the local segment, the WINS proxy can query a WINS server across a router because this is not broadcast traffic, but unicast traffic, to a specific IP address. If a network segment has non-WINS clients on it, you must configure at least one of the WINS-enabled client workstations to be a WINS proxy.
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Lesson 1
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Understanding WINS
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Real World Enabling Routers to Accept Broadcast Traffic
It is possible for routers to permit broadcast packets to pass through. However, routers by their very nature are used to reduce the size of broadcast domains. For that reason, network administrators may choose to restrict routers from allowing NetBIOS broadcast packets to pass through them. For example, if a subnet has grown and is experiencing many collisions and excessive broadcast traffic, one solution is to split the subnet into two smaller subnets and to place a router between both of them. By doing this, you have taken one large broadcast domain and made it into two smaller broadcast domains, thereby reducing broadcast traffic. Think twice before considering such a venture, or even discussing it with the routing professional at your organization, unless you are prepared for a prolonged conversation.
WINS Database
The WINS database uses the Extensible Storage Engine (ESE) to operate. This is the same engine used by Active Directory directory service, Microsoft Exchange, and many other Windows components. ESE is built on JET (Joint Engine Technology). Most database programs such as Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, and Sybase allow transactions to first be written to a log file before being written to the database file. This improves performance because input/output (IO) to a file can be done quickly; subsequent transactions can be written to the area of the database where the data should be stored. ESE also separates log files and transactions to optimize performance. For example, if a WINS-enabled client is booted, the client will register its name and IP number to the WINS server. The WINS server will write this transaction to a log file immediately. Later, when the processor is idle, transactions will be permanently written directly to the database. There are a couple of advantages to this methodology:
Improved performance Fault tolerance
The improved performance has already been demonstrated, but how is fault tolerance gained in this example Because all transactions are written to a log file first, a harddisk crash of the database file could easily be restored from a backup tape combined with the log files you have stored on a different drive or tape. This would allow you to bring the server back to the point of failure. That is, transactions could be restored right up to the point when the crash occurred if you restored your WINS database backup and the current log files. Now that you have had a lesson in how most databases work, let s look at the WINS database.
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Designing a WINS Structure
WINS Database Files
WINS uses the JET database format to store data in five different file types:
Log Files As you learned earlier, transactions are stored in log files. These files begin with the letter J followed by a decimal number if the log file is a new transaction, for instance, J10.log. If a log file becomes full, it is renamed with a hexadecimal number appended to the previous name, such as J100000F.log. Then, a new log file with the original filename is created. Log files can grow quickly. As you learned in your earlier brief database lesson, writing to log files increases speed and efficiency of data storage as well as providing for recovery in case of a failure or crash. Log files should not be deleted until a backup of the WINS database has occurred. After all, once the database has been backed up, there is no reason to keep a copy of the log files because the transactions have already been posted to the database and backed up to tape or another media. If, however, the database crashes and there is no backup of the log files, losing the database would mean losing the files to recover. If you do not have a software or hardware redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system in place, you would be able to return the system only to the point of your last backup. All transactions that occurred between that backup and the crash would be lost.
Checkpoint files Checkpoint files are used during a recovery process. These files indicate the location of the information that was successfully written from the transaction log files to the database file. Wins.mdb The WINS server database file contains two tables: the IP address-toowner ID mapping table and the name-to-IP address mapping table. Winstmp.mdb This is a temporary file created by the WINS server service to aid in index maintenance. Res# .log Reserved log files are used if your server runs out of disk space and cannot create additional transaction log files. The server places outstanding transactions into these reserved log files, and the WINS service shuts down and logs an event to Event Viewer.
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