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Transport Layer
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The transport layer controls communication between computers; it passes data up to an application in the application layer or down to the Internet layer for network deliv ery. The transport layer also specifies a unique identifier for each communicating application in the form of a port number, which is used to keep track of which data packets are associated with which applications.
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Introduction to Active Directory and Network Infrastructure
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Data delivery in the transport layer is controlled by two protocols:
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) TCP is referred to as a connectionoriented protocol because a connection must be established between two computers before any data is transferred. It is also referred to as a reliable protocol because it checks up on the delivery of data to a remote computer by requiring that an acknowledgment be returned. If the remote computer does not return an acknowledgment within a specified period of time, the source computer retransmits the data. Most applications use TCP to transmit data. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) UDP is a connectionless service in that it does not establish a connection before transmitting data. UDP also does not require an acknowledgment of receipt. This provides faster data delivery than TCP but does not offer the capability to retransmit data that is not acknowledged. UDP is often used by applications sending very small amounts of data and by applications that stream media over a network, where retransmittal of data would not be useful.
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A port is associated with applications that use either the TCP or UDP protocols; these ports are referred to as TCP ports and UDP ports. A port can have any number between 0 and 65,535. The port numbers from 0 to 1,023 are reserved for common applications. Referred to as the well-known port numbers, these are under the control of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Ports from 1024 through 49151 are also under the control of IANA and are referred to as Registered Ports; these are used for less wellknown applications. Ports between 49152 and 65535 are referred to as dynamic or private ports. You ll learn more about port numbers in 7.
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Internet Layer
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The Internet layer is responsible for addressing, packaging, and routing the data that is handed down to it from the transport layer. There are four core protocols in this layer: Internet Protocol (IP), Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), and Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Internet Protocol IP is a connectionless, and therefore unreliable, protocol that is primarily responsible for addressing packets and routing them between networked computers. Although IP always attempts to deliver a packet, a packet may be lost, corrupted, delivered out of sequence, duplicated, or delayed. IP does not attempt to recover from these types of errors by requesting retransmission of the data. Acknowledging the delivery of packets and recovering lost packets is the responsibility of a higher-layer protocol, such as TCP, or of the application itself. IP also assigns a Time to Live (TTL) value to each packet, which specifies the maximum length of time that the packet can travel on the network before being discarded. The TTL is measured in seconds, which represent the maximum time a packet can survive on a network. Every instance of IP that processes a packet decrements the TTL by at least one. Any instance of IP that examines a packet with a TTL of zero discards the packet.
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Lesson 3
TCP/IP Overview
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Address Resolution Protocol ARP is responsible for mapping IP addresses to the hardware addresses (or MAC addresses) of the network adapters of computers on the network. When IP readies a packet for transmission to a remote computer, it does so using that computer s IP address. However, the actual network cards (and other network interfaces) on a network transfer data using long hardware addresses that ensure each network interface on a network is uniquely identified. In the Windows Server 2003 implementation of ARP, ARP translates between IP addresses and hardware addresses and maintains a table of mappings known as the ARP cache. This table is built dynamically. When ARP receives a request to translate an IP address, it checks for the address in its table. If the address is found, ARP returns the address to the requesting software. If the address is not found in the table, ARP broadcasts a packet to the local subnet; this packet contains the IP address for which the hardware address is needed. If a receiving host identifies the IP address as its own, it responds by sending its hardware address back to the requesting host. The response is then stored in the ARP cache. Internet Control Message Protocol ICMP provides error reporting and traffic control messaging. With ICMP, computers and routers that use IP communication can report errors and exchange limited control and status information. For example, if IP is unable to deliver a packet to a destination computer, ICMP sends a Destination Unreachable message to the source computer. Internet Group Messaging Protocol The Internet Group Membership Protocol (IGMP) is used by hosts to report multicast group membership to adjacent routers. Multicasting allows one host to send content to multiple other hosts simultaneously. Examples would be streaming high-bandwidth media to multiple computers, updating software on a number of computers at once, and some types of distribution lists. Typically, a group of computers becomes part of a multicast group membership so that they can be sent multicast messages.
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