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Raindrop animations
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The JavaFX scene graph API is split into many packages, specializing in various aspects of video graphics and effects. You ll be glad to know we ll be looking at only a handful of them in this chapter. At its heart, the scene graph centers on a single element known as a node. There are numerous nodes provided in the standard API; some draw shapes, some act as groups, while others are concerned with layout. All the nodes are linked, at the top level, into a stage, which provides a bridge to the outside world, be that a desktop window or a browser applet. For our light synthesizer we re going to start by creating a raindrop effect, like tiny droplets of water falling onto the still surface of a pond. For those wondering (or perhaps pondering) how this might look, the effect is caught in action in figure 5.4.
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Figure 5.4 Raindrops are constructed from several ripples. Each ripple expands outward, fading as it goes.
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Behind the scene graph
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Before we begin, it s essential to pin down exactly how a raindrop works from a computer graphics point of view:
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Each raindrop is constructed from multiple ripple circles. Each ripple circle animates, starting at zero width and growing to a given radius, over a set duration. As each ripple grows, it also fades. Ripples are staggered to begin their individual animation at regular beats throughout the lifetime of the overall raindrop animation.
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Keen-eyed readers will have spotted two different types of timing going on here: at the outermost level we have the raindrop activating ripples at regular beats, and at the lowest level we have the smooth animation of an individual ripple running its course, expanding and fading. These are two very different types of animation, one digital in nature (jumping between states, with no midway transitions) and the other analog in nature (a smooth transition between states), combining to form the overall raindrop effect.
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The RainDrop class: creating graphics from geometric shapes
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Now that you know what we re trying to achieve, let s look at a piece of code that defines the scene graph. See listing 5.1.
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Listing 5.1 RainDrop.fx
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package jfxia.chapter5; import import import import import import import javafx.animation.Interpolator; javafx.animation.KeyFrame; javafx.animation.Timeline; javafx.lang.Duration; javafx.scene.Group; javafx.scene.paint.Color; javafx.scene.shape.Circle;
package class RainDrop extends Group { public-init var radius:Number = 150.0; public-init var numRipples:Integer = 3; public-init var rippleGap:Duration = 250ms; package var color:Color = Color.LIGHTBLUE; var ripples:Ripple[]; var masterTimeline:Timeline;
Subclasses Group External interface variables
init { ripples = for(i in [0..<numRipples]) Ripple { stroke: bind color; animRadius: radius; }; content = ripples; masterTimeline = Timeline { keyFrames: for(i in [0..<numRipples]) KeyFrame { time: i*rippleGap; action: function() {
Multiple Ripple instances
Timeline to activate ripples
Getting animated: LightShow, version 1
ripples[i].rippleTimeline .playFromStart(); } }; }; } package function start(x:Integer,y:Integer) : Void { this.layoutX = x; this.layoutY = y; masterTimeline.playFromStart(); } } class Ripple extends Circle { var animRadius:Number; override var fill = null;
Timeline to activate ripples
Starts animating ripples
Subclasses Circle
def rippleTimeline = Timeline { keyFrames: [ at (0ms) { radius => 0; Start opacity => 1.0; animation strokeWidth => 10.0; state visible => true; } , at (1.5s) { radius => animRadius tween Interpolator.EASEOUT; opacity => 0.0 tween Interpolator.EASEOUT; strokeWidth => 5.0 tween Interpolator.LINEAR; visible => false; } ] }; }
Finish animation state
Listing 5.1 creates two classes, Raindrop and Ripple. Together they form our desired raindrop effect onscreen, with multiple circles fanning out from a central point, fading as they go. The code will not run on its own we need another bootstrap class, which we ll look at in a moment. For now let s consider how the raindrop effect works and how the example code implements it. The second class, Ripple, implements a single animating ripple, which is why it subclasses the javafx.scene.shape.Circle class. Each circle is a node in the scene graph, a geometric shape that can be rendered onscreen. A raindrop with just one ripple would look rather lame. That s why the first class, RainDrop, is a container for several Ripple objects, subclassing javafx.scene.Group, which is the standard JavaFX scene graph group node. The Group class works like the Flow class we encountered last chapter, except it does not impose any layout on its children. The content attribute is a sequence of
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