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1. What are the two types of triggers 2. What are they generally used for
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1. SQL Server 2005 provides DML and DDL triggers. 2. DML triggers fire in response to INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements executed against a specific table. DML triggers are generally used to perform operations against the data that was modified in a table. DDL triggers fire in response to DDL commands being executed on the server. DDL triggers are used mainly for security and auditing purposes.
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PRACTICE
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Creating DML and DDL Triggers
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In these practices, you create a DML trigger that audits list-price changes and a DDL trigger that prevents dropping tables in a database.
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Practice 1: Create a DML Trigger
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In this practice, you create a DML trigger on the Production.Product table that audits when the list price changes. 1. If necessary, launch SSMS, connect to your instance, open a new query window, and change the database context to the AdventureWorks database.
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Lesson 3: Implementing Triggers
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2. Create an auditing table by executing the following command:
CREATE TABLE Production.ProductAudit (AuditID int identity(1,1) PRIMARY KEY, ProductID int NOT NULL, ListPriceBefore money NOT NULL, ListPriceAfter money NOT NULL, AuditDate datetime NOT NULL, ChangeUser sysname NOT NULL);
3. Create a trigger against the Production.Product table that logs all changes in the audit table. For simplicity, store everything in an XML column:
CREATE TRIGGER tuid_ProductAudit ON Production.Product FOR UPDATE AS INSERT INTO Production.ProductAudit (ProductID, ListPriceBefore, ListPriceAfter, AuditDate, ChangeUser) SELECT INSERTED.ProductID, DELETED.ListPrice, INSERTED.ListPrice, getdate(), suser_sname() FROM INSERTED INNER JOIN DELETED ON INSERTED.ProductID = DELETED.ProductID;
4. Change a row of data in the Production.Product table. 5. Observe the effect of the trigger by selecting the data from the audit table. 6. Can you explain why there are two rows of data in the Production.ProductAudit table for each row that is changed
Practice 2: Create a DDL Trigger
In this practice, you create a DDL trigger that prevents any table from being dropped. 1. If necessary, launch SSMS, connect to your instance, open a new query window, and change the database context to the AdventureWorks database. 2. Create the DDL trigger by executing the following code:
CREATE TRIGGER tddl_tabledropprevent ON DATABASE FOR DROP_TABLE AS PRINT 'Tables cannot be dropped!' ROLLBACK ;
3. Create a table for testing purposes, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.DropTest (ID int NOT NULL);
9
Creating Functions, Stored Procedures, and Triggers
4. Try to drop the table you just created by executing the following code:
DROP TABLE dbo.DropTest;
5. Verify that the table still exists by executing the following code:
SELECT ID from dbo.DropTest
Lesson Summary
SQL Server supports two types of triggers: DML and DDL. DML triggers can be either AFTER or INSTEAD OF triggers. You can create any number of AFTER triggers for a table or view, but you can create only one INSTEAD OF trigger for each data-modification operation for a table or view. When DML triggers fire, they have access to special tables named INSERTED and DELETED. DDL triggers fire in response to DDL events that occur on the server, such as creating, altering, or dropping an object. The main purposes of DDL triggers are to provide an additional means of security and to audit any DDL commands issued against a database.
Lesson Review
The following questions are intended to reinforce key information presented in this lesson. The questions are also available on the companion CD if you prefer to review them in electronic form.
NOTE
Answers
Answers to these questions and explanations of why each answer choice is right or wrong are located in the Answers section at the end of the book.
1. Which of the following operators is allowed in a trigger A. CREATE INDEX B. RESTORE DATABASE C. INSERT D. ALTER DATABASE
9 Review
Review
To further practice and reinforce the skills you learned in this chapter, you can
Review the chapter summary. Review the list of key terms introduced in this chapter. Complete the case scenario. This scenario sets up a real-world situation involving the topics of this chapter and asks you to create a solution. Complete the suggested practices. Take a practice test.
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