Implementing Database Mirroring in .NET

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Implementing Database Mirroring
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Endpoints provide multiple layers of security that you can configure for your needs. The first level of security is in the type and payload definition, as you just saw. When you create an endpoint for a database mirroring session, the endpoint will not respond to any requests other than for database mirroring. The endpoint will refuse any HTTP, Transact-SQL, or Service Broker requests. The second layer of security is the TCP configuration of the endpoint. Each TCP endpoint requires that you specify a port number. The default port number for a TCP endpoint is 5022. You then configure the Listener IP for the TCP endpoint. By default, the endpoint accepts connections on any valid IP address (the ALL option). But to further restrict the requests to which this endpoint responds, you can specify a particular IP address for it to listen to for requests.
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Because port 5022 is the default port number for a TCP endpoint, you should specify a different port number. Not using the default port number helps foil potential hackers or at least makes their job more difficult by requiring them to use a port scanner instead of just blindly connecting to port 5022 for a denial of service attack (DoS) or other hacking attack. However, the general recommendation is to leave the Listener IP set to the default of ALL because a given instance could have multiple database mirroring sessions running.
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The third and fourth layers of security for an endpoint are the authentication method and the encryption setting. You can use either Microsoft Windows based authentication or certificates. You specify Windows-based authentication by selecting the NTLM, KERBEROS, or NEGOTIATE option. The NEGOTIATE option causes the instances to dynamically select the authentication method. You can set up certificatebased authentication by using a certificate from a trusted authority or by generating your own Windows certificate.
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When all database mirroring instances reside within a single domain or across trusted domains, you should use Windows-based authentication. When instances span nontrusted domains, you should use certificate-based authentication.
All communications between endpoints can be encrypted, and you can specify which encryption algorithm to use for the communications. The default algorithm is RC4, but you can specify the much stronger Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm.
Lesson 3: Establishing Endpoints
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Encryption
Use RC4 for minimal encryption strength and best performance. Use AES if you require strong encryption, but note that this algorithm requires more calculation overhead and will affect performance.
The fifth and sixth layers of security regard state options for an endpoint. You have to grant CONNECT authority to an endpoint for a connection to be established. Additionally, you must set the state of the endpoint to STARTED. An endpoint with a state of STOPPED returns an error for any connection attempt, whereas an endpoint with a state of DISABLED does not respond to any request. The default option is STOPPED.
Database Mirroring Endpoints
Endpoints that support database mirroring are a special implementation of a TCP endpoint and have the following characteristics:
Endpoint type of TCP Payload of DATABASE_MIRRORING Only one endpoint supporting database mirroring allowed per SQL Server instance
Database mirroring endpoints establish a seventh layer of security through the use of the ROLE option. You can specify that an endpoint be a PARTNER, WITNESS, or ALL. An endpoint specified as PARTNER can participate only as the principal or the mirror. An endpoint specified as WITNESS can participate only as a witness. An endpoint specified as ALL can function in any role.
NOTE
Endpoints on Express Edition
If you are creating a database mirroring endpoint on SQL Server 2005 Express Edition, it will support only a role of WITNESS.
The following Transact-SQL example shows how to create a database mirroring endpoint:
CREATE ENDPOINT [Mirroring] AS TCP (LISTENER_PORT = 5022) FOR DATA_MIRRORING (ROLE = PARTNER, ENCRYPTION = REQUIRED); ALTER ENDPOINT [Mirroring] STATE = STARTED;
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