Securing Publications in .NET

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Securing Publications
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To secure publications, SQL Server 2005 offers a new mechanism: the publication access list (PAL). The PAL is equivalent to the Windows access control list (ACL). NTFS, printing, and shares all use ACLs to control user access. The PAL is automatically created with the publication, and you use it to assign a list of logins and groups that have access to the publication. Every time an agent connects to the Publisher or Distributor and requests the publication, the server uses the PAL to verify that the agent account is included in the list. To access a PAL through SSMS, follow these steps: 1. Open SSMS. 2. Connect to the Publisher database engine instance. 3. Expand the Replication, Local Publications folder. 4. Right-click the Publication and choose Properties. 5. Select the Publication Access List page, as Figure 19-12 shows.
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Lesson 3: Configuring Replication Security
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Figure 19-12 Selecting Publication Access List
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To access and manage the list by using stored procedures, use the following procedures:
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sp_help_publication_access Returns the list of logins in the PAL sp_grant_publication_access Adds a login to the PAL sp_revoke_publication_access Removes the login from the PAL
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Permissions Required by Agents
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The principle of least privilege, or least account, is a key concept in security. The idea is to grant the minimum possible rights or account privileges to permit a legitimate action. This principle gives you greater data and functionality protection from malicious users or hackers. Limiting the level of access that replication agents have is an important task in the process of securing the replication process. Because agents are executables that run under the context of a Windows account, they affect not only the database but also the operating system. Table 19-2 summarizes the minimum permissions required by each replication agent.
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19
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Managing Replication
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Table 19-2 Replication Agent Permissions
Agent Snapshot Log Reader Distribution (Pull) Distribution (Push) Merge (Push) Merge (Pull) Queue Reader
Publication Database dbo_owner dbo_owner
Distribution Database dbo_owner dbo_owner dbo_owner
Subscription Database dbo_owner dbo_owner
Snapshot Share Write
PPAL
Read Read Read Read
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Public Public dbo_owner
dbo_owner Public dbo_owner
dbo_owner dbo_owner dbo_owner
Quick Check
You want to secure a transactional pull replication configuration. What rights should you grant the Windows user account that runs the Distribution Agent
Quick Check Answer
The Windows account should
Be assigned to the distribution database as dbo_owner. Be assigned to the subscription database as dbo_owner. Have read access to the Snapshot folder. Be added to the PAL.
PRACTICE
Creating a Secure Transactional Replication Configuration
In this practice, you create and configure a new publication, using a secure environment. As a system administrator, you will delete the previous publication, create the accounts and configure the operating system permissions, and finally configure
Lesson 3: Configuring Replication Security
replication at the server level. You will log in as a Publisher user to create the publication and then log in as a Subscriber user to subscribe to the publication.
Practice 1: Delete the Unsecure Replication
In this practice, you delete the previously defined replication configuration so that you can create a new configuration that uses security best practices. 1. Open SSMS. 2. Expand the Replication, Local Publications folder. 3. Right-click the Product publication and choose Delete. 4. Click Yes to confirm the removal of the publication and the subscription. SQL Server automatically deletes the snapshot and distribution jobs, along with the publication and subscription information. 5. Navigate to the Databases folder. 6. Right-click the SubsTesting database and choose Delete. 7. In the Delete Object dialog box, click OK to confirm the removal of the SubsTesting database. 8. Right-click the Databases folder and choose New Database. You will create an empty database that will subscribe to your new secure publication. 9. In the Database text box, type SubsTesting to name the database. Click OK to create the database. 10. On the toolbar, click New Query. 11. Type the following command:
exec sp_replicationdboption @dbname = N'ReplTesting' , @optname = N'publish' , @value = N'false'
12. This command disables the ReplTesting database for publishing. Execute the command and then verify that the server returns the following message:
The replication option 'publish' of database 'ReplTesting' has been set to false.
13. Right-click the Replication folder and choose Disable Publishing And Distribution. This process deletes the distribution database and removes the Publisher configuration. 14. On the Disable Publishing And Distribution Wizard page, click Next. 15. Select Yes, Disable Publishing On This Server. 16. Click Next.
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