Lesson 2: Creating a Full-Text Index in VS .NET

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Lesson 2: Creating a Full-Text Index
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Configuring noise words
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SQL Server ships with a default set of noise word files for each language. These files are stored in $SQL_Server_Install_Path\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL.1\MSSQL\FTDATA\. The files are simple text files that you can edit to include noise words specific to your application that you want to exclude. If a word exists in this file, it is not indexed and is excluded from any full-text queries.
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At this point, you might be thinking that you can create full-text indexes only on textbased columns. This is not true. You use protocol handlers and filters when you want to create a full-text index on a varbinary, varbinary(max), or image column. These services let you extract text from Word, Excel, and PowerPoint files as well as PDF and other files that are stored in a native format inside SQL Server. For the filters to work, you need to add a column to the table to contain a value that indicates the type of document stored in the column. The filter then loads up the binary stream stored in the column, strips all the formatting information, and returns the text within the document to the word-breaker routine.
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Filters
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By taking advantage of filters, you no longer have to convert files to a text-based format before being able to use full-text indexing on them. You can store files in their native format inside SQL Server while still allowing full-search capability.
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After the word-breaker routine has a list of valid words for a row within a column, the full-text engine calculates tokens to represent the words. A token is simply a compressed form of the original word that saves space and ensures that full-text indexes can be created in as compact a form as possible. The full-text functionality then builds all the tokens in a column into an inverted, stacked, compressed structure within a file that is used for search operations. This unique structure allows ranking and scoring algorithms to efficiently satisfy possible queries.
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How to Create a Full-Text Index
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To create a full-text index, you use the CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX Transact-SQL command, as the following generic syntax shows:
CREATE FULLTEXT INDEX ON table_name [(column_name [TYPE COLUMN type_column_name] [LANGUAGE language_term] [,...n])]
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Creating Full-Text Catalogs
KEY INDEX index_name [ON fulltext_catalog_name] [WITH {CHANGE_TRACKING {MANUAL | AUTO | OFF [, NO POPULATION]}} ]
The first part of this command specifies the table on which you want to create the fulltext index. Although you can index multiple columns in a table, only one full-text index per table is allowed. You then specify the column or columns you want to index. If you specify a column of type varbinary, varbinary(max), or image for indexing, you must also specify the TYPE COLUMN clause. This clause refers to the column discussed earlier that you need to add to the table to designate the format of the column s data.
NOTE
Type columns
A type column is a character column that contains an abbreviation that corresponds to the contents of a column being indexed. For example, a value of .doc indicates a Word document. This value is entered on a row-by-row basis, so multiple different document types can be stored in a single column. This column is used to load the correct filter for the word-breaker routine when the index is built on a varbinary, varbinary(max), or image column.
As you are specifying the column and column type for the index, you can also specify an explicit language for the column. You might need to specify this clause when you are indexing a table that contains multiple columns in which each column contains different languages, such as a column that is translated into multiple languages. The command s KEY INDEX clause specifies the table s unique column. This column uniquely identifies each row in the table so that the full-text index can be correlated to rows in the table. The key must be a single column in the table; compound keys are not allowed. The next clause, ON, enables you to specify the full-text catalog on which the index is created. And the final clause specifies whether changes to the indexed data are tracked. With regular indexes, SQL Server always maintains the index in sync with the underlying data by causing changes in the index at the same time as changes to the referenced data are made. Full-text indexes, however, are separated from normal database transaction processes so that changes to data in columns that are full-text indexed are propagated into the index via a background process that does not immediately reflect the data changes. When the change-tracking value is set to MANUAL, changes to the data in the columns need to be propagated into the index either manually or by scheduling a job in
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