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In this practice, you will apply a variety of constraints to the Customer, CustomerAddress, StateProvince, and Country tables so that they more closely match what you would see in an actual production environment. 1. If necessary, launch SSMS, connect to your instance, and open a new query window. 2. Before you begin this exercise, drop all the tables that you created previously by using the following batch:
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DROP DROP DROP DROP TABLE TABLE TABLE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress; dbo.Customer; dbo.Country; dbo.StateProvince;
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If you receive any errors when executing the preceding batch, you can ignore them. Any error you might receive will say something like could not drop table because it does not exist. 9, Creating Functions, Stored Procedures, and Triggers, explains how to write batches that contain error checking and handling.
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3. Re-create the Country and StateProvince tables with primary keys, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.StateProvince (StateProvinceID int StateProvince varchar(50) CREATE TABLE dbo.Country (CountryID int Country varchar(50) IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL); PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED,
IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED, NOT NULL);
4. Create a new table for the list of allowed address types, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.AddressType (AddressTypeID tinyint AddressType varchar(20) IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED, NOT NULL);
5. Create the CustomerAddress table with a primary key and enforce referential integrity for the StateProvinceID, CountryID, and AddressType columns, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress (CustomerAddressID int AddressType char(4) S dbo.AddressType(AddressTypeID), PrimaryAddressFlag bit AddressLine1 varchar(30) AddressLine2 varchar(30) AddressLine3 varchar(30) City varchar(50) StateProvinceID int S dbo.StateProvince(StateProvinceID), PostalCode char(10) CountryID int Country(CountryID)); IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED, NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (AddressType) REFERENCE NOT NULL, NOT NULL, NULL, NULL, NOT NULL, NULL FOREIGN KEY (StateProvinceID) REFERENCE NULL, NULL FOREIGN KEY (CountryID) REFERENCES dbo.
NOTE
Data type mismatches
You should have received an error message when trying to create this table. Before reading on, can you explain why The AddressType column is defined as a char(4), but the foreign key references an integer column in the AddressType table. A character value cannot be implicitly converted to a tinyint for comparison. Although the column name in the CustomerAddress table does not have to match the column name in the AddressType table, the data types must be compatible. However, for consistency and readability, the columns names should match.
6. Fix the error by redefining the CustomerAddress table, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerAddress (CustomerAddressID int AddressTypeID tinyint CES dbo.AddressType(AddressTypeID), PrimaryAddressFlag bit AddressLine1 varchar(30) IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED, NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (AddressTypeID) REFEREN NOT NULL, NOT NULL,
Lesson 2: Implementing Constraints
AddressLine2 varchar(30) NULL, AddressLine3 varchar(30) NULL, City varchar(50) NOT NULL, StateProvinceID int NULL FOREIGN KEY (StateProvinceID) REFERENCES dbo.StateProvince(StateProvinceID), PostalCode char(10) NULL, CountryID int NULL FOREIGN KEY (CountryID) REFERENCES dbo.Country(CountryID));
7. Create the Customer table with a primary key, enforcing no duplicate customer names and a credit line between 0 and 50,000. Default the available balance to 0, and default the creation date to the current date and time, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.Customer (CustomerID int IDENTITY(1,1) PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED, CustomerName varchar(50) NOT NULL UNIQUE NONCLUSTERED, CreditLine smallmoney NULL CHECK (CreditLine >= 0 AND CreditLine < = 50000), OutstandingBalance smallmoney NULL DEFAULT 0, AvailableCredit AS (CreditLine - OutstandingBalance), CreationDate datetime NOT NULL DEFAULT getdate());
8. Our customer minidatabase is looking pretty good at this point, but there is one problem. Customers can be entered, and addresses can be entered, but there is no way to associate a customer to an address. Create a table that provides an association between the Customer and CustomerAddress tables, as follows:
CREATE TABLE dbo.CustomerToCustomerAddress (CustomerID int NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (CustomerID) REFERENCES dbo.Customer(CustomerID), CustomerAddressID int NOT NULL FOREIGN KEY (CustomerAddressID) REFERENCES dbo.CustomerAddress(CustomerAddressID), CONSTRAINT PK_CustomerToCustomerAddress PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED(CustomerID, CustomerAddressID));
NOTE
Cross-reference tables
The CustomerToCustomerAddress table is generally referred to as a cross-reference table. You could have linked the Customer and CustomerAddress tables together by adding a CustomerID column to the CustomerAddress table. However, the cross-reference table allows flexibility in the design and minimizes the amount of data that needs to be stored. For example, you could have multiple customers at the same address, such as with multiple people in the same household. If the CustomerID column were added to the CustomerAddress table, each customer at the same address would require you to duplicate the address in the CustomerAddress table. However, the cross-reference table allows you to associate a single row in the CustomerAddress table with one or more customers. The opposite is also true: you can associate a single customer with multiple addresses.
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