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Case expression syntax
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If you re not familiar with the SQL case expression, see the CASE (Transact-SQL) topic in SQL Server 2005 Books Online.
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This query conditionally checks the value of the SalariedFlag column, returning the total of the VacationHours and SickLeaveHours columns if the employee is salaried. Otherwise, only the SickLeaveHours column value is returned.
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Lesson 1: Querying Data
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All possible output paths of a case expression must be of the same data type. If all the columns you need to output are not the same type, make sure to use the CAST or CONVERT functions to make them uniform. See the section titled Using System Functions later in this chapter for more information.
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Creating Queries That Use Aggregate Functions
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You can often aggregate data stored in tables within a database to produce important types of business information. For instance, you might not be interested in a list of employees in the database but instead want to know the average salary for all the employees. You perform this type of calculation by using aggregate functions. Aggregate functions operate on groups of rows rather than individual rows; the aggregate function processes a group of rows to produce a single output value. Transact-SQL has several built-in aggregate functions, and you can also define aggregate functions by using Microsoft .NET languages. Table 5-1 lists commonly used built-in aggregate functions and what they do.
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Table 5-1
Commonly Used Built-in Aggregate Functions
Function AVG COUNT/COUNT_BIG
Description Returns the average value of the rows in the group. Returns the count of the rows in the group. COUNT returns its output typed as an integer, whereas COUNT_BIG returns its output typed as a bigint. MAX returns the maximum value in the group. MIN returns the minimum value in the group. Returns the sum of the rows in the group. Returns the standard deviation of the rows in the group. Returns the statistical variance of the rows in the group.
MAX/MIN SUM STDEV VAR
As an example, the following query uses the AVG aggregate function to return the average number of vacation hours for all employees in the Employee table:
SELECT AVG(VacationHours) FROM HumanResources.Employee
5
Working with Transact-SQL
If you need to return aggregated data alongside nonaggregated data, you must use aggregate functions in conjunction with a GROUP BY clause. You use the nonaggregated columns to define the groups for aggregation. Each distinct combination of nonaggregated data will comprise one group. For instance, the following query returns the average number of vacation hours for the employees in the Employee table, grouped by the employees salary status:
SELECT SalariedFlag, AVG(VacationHours) FROM HumanResources.Employee GROUP BY SalariedFlag
Because there are two distinct salary statuses in the Employee table salaried and nonsalaried the results of this query are two rows. One row contains the average number of vacation hours for salaried employees, and the other contains the average number of vacation hours for nonsalaried employees.
Creating Queries That Format Data by Using PIVOT and UNPIVOT Operators
Business users often want to see data formatted in what s known as a cross-tabulation. This is a special type of aggregate query in which the grouped rows for one of the columns become columns themselves. For instance, the final query in the last section returned two rows: one containing the average number of vacation hours for salaried employees and one containing the average number of vacation hours for nonsalaried employees. A business user might instead want the output formatted as a single row with two columns: one column for the average vacation hours for salaried employees and one for the average vacation hours for nonsalaried employees. You can use the PIVOT operator to produce this output. To use the PIVOT operator, perform the following steps: 1. Select the data you need by using a special type of subquery called a derived table. 2. After you define the derived table, apply the PIVOT operator and specify an aggregate function to use. 3. Define which columns you want to include in the output.
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