Wildcarded Actions in C#

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To handle untyped messages, you must understand two concepts. The first involves using the Action or SoapAction value. An action is an optional value included with a request. The purpose of the value is to provide a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that identifies the intent of the message. If the message is in SOAP format, this is also known as the SoapAction value. In SOAP, the intent of the message is expressed as the name of the method on the exposed service that is to be executed. Most interesting of all is that the Action value is not required. Although the action might be used as a hint to optimize processing, it should not be required.
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In the WCF world, this means that most (but not necessarily all) of the messages that arrive at a service will have an Action value. If the request is coming from an unmodified proxy as generated by svcutil, the Action value will definitely exist. The scenario being dealt with, however, is when requests are sent by a different client, one that will not necessarily have an Action value. Because the Action value describes the method to be invoked, there must be a mechanism to handle requests that don t have an Action value. This is accomplished through the OperationContract attribute. This attribute includes an Action property. To be completely accurate, the value of this property is the URI to be used to map any incoming request with an action to the decorated method. For example, consider the following code:
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' VB <ServiceContract> _ Public Interface IMessageHandler <OperationContract(Action:="uri://service/description")> _ Function HandleThisMessage(request As Message) As Message End Interface // C# [ServiceContract] public interface IMessageHandler { [OperationContract(Action="uri://service/description")] Message HandleThisMessage(Message request); }
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This interface definition tells WCF to route any message that contains an action of uri://service/ description to the HandleThisMessage method. If no action is specified, then by default, the OperationContract attribute uses the name of the method combined with the namespace for the service as the action. This provides the behavior that you have come to expect. The goal is not, however, to specify a different action. It is to find a way to map unrecognized or nonexistent actions onto a method by setting the Action property to an asterisk. The following code illustrates the technique (in bold), although you re not at a working example yet:
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' VB <ServiceContract> _ Public Interface IMessageHandler <OperationContract(Action:="*")> _ Function HandleAllMessages(request As Message) As Message End Interface // C# [ServiceContract] public interface IMessageHandler { [OperationContract(Action="*")] Message HandleAllMessages(Message request); }
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Lesson 1: Dealing with POX
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Only one wildcard action
For what should be obvious reasons, no more than one method can be defined within a single interface that has the Action property set to * .
Now when a request arrives and there is no action (or the action is not recognized), the HandleAllMessages method will be invoked. You might also have noticed that the HandleAllMessages method actually returns an object of type Message. This is the response the client expects to see. If you just want to process the request and not deliver a response to the client, the operation should be marked as being one-way, such as is shown in bold here:
' VB <ServiceContract> _ Public Interface IMessageHandler <OperationContract(Action:="*", IsOneWay:=True)> _ Sub HandleAllMessages(request As Message) End Interface // C# [ServiceContract] public interface IMessageHandler { [OperationContract(Action="*", IsOneWay=true)] void HandleAllMessages(Message request); }
When the IsOneWay attribute in the OperationContract attribute is set to true, the client will not expect a message to be returned from a call to the service. This is different from the behavior expected if the IsOneWay attribute were set to false in the preceding example. In that case, the client would wait for an empty response to be returned. Setting IsOneWay to true is typically done when the call of the service is basically a notification message. The client simply is telling the service that something happened; it has no reason to get a response. For the scenario involving wildcard actions, however, you expect to send a response back from the service. The format of the response is not known. (It could be based on information provided in the request, for example.) At the same time, the mechanism WCF uses to send information expects a namespace to be included with the response. The default value for the response namespace is the request namespace with the literal Response appended. For example, if the Action value were uri://tempuri.org/Update , the default response namespace would be uri://tempuri.org/UpdateResponse . If you don t know the action of the request, how could you know the namespace for the response You can t. Instead, the ReplyAction property on the OperationContract attribute
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