qr code generator c# Lesson 1: Implementing Spatial Data Types in C#

Generation QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in C# Lesson 1: Implementing Spatial Data Types

Lesson 1: Implementing Spatial Data Types
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OGc StanDaRDS ORGanizatiOn
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For more information about the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the associated standards, see http://www.opengeospatial.org/.
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Well-known text (Wkt)
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A standard created by the OGC used to represent text-based descriptions of geospatial objects.
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Well-known binary (Wkb) The binary equivalent to WKT, which is sometimes used to transfer and store spatial data. Methods
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Actions an object can perform. Methods designed to work with geometry and
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geography data types.
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Object
A collection of properties and methods that provide a defined functionality.
instantiation The process of producing a particular instance of an object based on the object s properties and methods.
A reference ID associated with a specific model of the earth. These IDs reference the European Petroleum Survey Group (EPSG) standard identification system. For example, SRID 4326, the default geography SRID, maps to the WGS 84 standard. Since geometry data types can exist in undefined planar space, the default geometry SRID is 0, representing undefined planar space.
Spatial Reference identifier (SRiD)
More info
WGS 84
For more information about the WGS 84 system and additional geodetic standards, see http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/faq.shtml#WGS84.
A group of 11 spatial data objects designed to allow you to work with geometrical or geographical data. Only seven of these objects are instantiable in a database. The spatial instance types are part of the GeometryCollection and are built in a hierarchy. Each object receives properties from its parent object in the class hierarchy, as shown in Figure 8-1.
instance types (or spatial data objects)
Geometry
Surface
Curve
Point
GeomCollection
Polygon
LineString
MultiSurface
MultiCurve
MultiPoint
MultiPolygon
FiGURe 8-1 Spatial instance types class hierarchy
MultiLineString
Extending Microsoft SQL Server Functionality with the Spatial, Full-Text Search, and Service Broker
Both the geometry and geography data types support these spatial instance types (data objects). As indicated by the gray boxes in Figure 8-1, the Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPolygon, MultiLineString, MultiPoint, and GeomCollection instance types can be instantiated in your SQL Server databases. The white boxes represent spatial instance types that are used to define general properties that are inherited by objects below them but are not complete enough to be instantiated on their own.
Restrictions When Using the geography Data Type
When you use the geography data type, each geography instance must fit inside a single hemisphere. You cannot store objects larger than a hemisphere. We typically think of hemispheres as the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Hemispheres, but this is not the case with the geography data type. For the geography data type, a hemisphere simply represents one half of the globe. In addition, if you use a geography data type that requires the input of two or more geography instances, and the results from the methods do not fit inside a single hemisphere, the output returns NULL. Finally, when you use a WKT or WKB representation, the results must fit inside a single hemisphere or the system throws an ArgumentException.
Instantiating Spatial Data Types
Before you can instantiate spatial data types, you must create a table that includes a column defined with the geometry or geography data type. For our examples in this chapter, we use the geography data type. The following sample code creates a table named Museum. The Location column holds geospatial data for the museum location:
CREATE TABLE Museum (MuseumID int IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY, MuseumName nchar(50), MuseumAddress nvarchar(200), Location geography);
Once you have created the table with a geography column, you can instantiate the spatial data type by inserting geodetic data, such as latitude and longitude, into the table. There are a large number of methods available to allow you to enter information of different formats into the geography column. The Point extended static geography method constructs an instance representing a point that includes information on the longitude, latitude, and SRID.
iMPortant
ORDeR OF aRGUMentS
It is important to remember that geospatial data is frequently referred to in terms of latitude followed by longitude. If you used a Community Technology Preview (CTP) release of SQL Server 2008 prior to CTP 6, the order of the commands was also latitude followed by longitude. Beginning with CTP 6 and in the final release of SQL Server 2008, Microsoft put the arguments in the order of longitude followed by latitude, in response to user input. Depending on the version of SQL Server Books Online that you are using, the syntax for the spatial methods might have the longitude and latitude values reversed.
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