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FiGURe 1-8 Results with the GROUPING function added
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Lesson 3: Implementing Aggregate Queries
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Using GROUPING SETS
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GROUPING SETS were added in SQL Server 2008 to give you greater flexibility when defining SELECT statements that include aggregate functions. Depending on how the GROUPING SETS are defined, they can be equivalent to a standard ROLLUP or CUBE operation, to several GROUP BY operations combined with the UNION ALL operator, or a subset of the data that would typically be returned by a ROLLUP or CUBE operator.
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GROUPING SETS eQUivaLentS
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For a complete list of commands that are equivalent to different combinations of GROUPING SETS, see GROUPING SETS Equivalents, in SQL Server Books Online.
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GROUPING SETS Samples
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The samples in this section provide you with an idea of some of the options available when defining GROUPING SETS. The following sample includes two separate queries that produce identical result sets, but the GROUPING SETS query shown first is much cleaner and easier to read. The remark between the queries has been made bold to make the second query (noted as the Equivalent code) easier to locate:
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SELECT Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID , Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID , AVG(Listprice) AS 'Average' FROM Production.Product JOIN Production.ProductSubcategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductSubcategoryID = Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID JOIN Production.ProductCategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductCategoryID = Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID WHERE ListPrice <> 0 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS ((Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID), (Product.ProductSubcategoryID))
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--Equivalent code SELECT NULL AS 'ProductCategoryID', Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID , AVG(Listprice) AS 'Average' FROM Production.Product JOIN Production.ProductSubcategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductSubcategoryID = Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID JOIN Production.ProductCategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductCategoryID = Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID
Data Retrieval
WHERE ListPrice <> 0 GROUP BY (Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID) UNION ALL SELECT Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID, NULL , AVG(Listprice) AS 'Average' FROM Production.Product JOIN Production.ProductSubcategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductSubcategoryID = Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID JOIN Production.ProductCategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductCategoryID = Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID WHERE ListPrice <> 0 GROUP BY (Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID)
The partial result set produced by either of these two commands is displayed in Figure 1-9.
FiGURe 1-9 Sample GROUPING SETS results
note
UNION ALL OPeRatOR
A full description of the UNION ALL operator is located in Lesson 4, Combining Datasets.
The next sample provides the same result set as the previous one, but it also adds a rollup row that produces the summary of both columns:
SELECT Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID , Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID , AVG(Listprice) AS 'Average'
Lesson 3: Implementing Aggregate Queries
FROM Production.Product JOIN Production.ProductSubcategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductSubcategoryID = Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID JOIN Production.ProductCategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductCategoryID = Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID WHERE ListPrice <> 0 GROUP BY GROUPING SETS (ROLLUP(Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID), (Product.ProductSubcategoryID));
The partial result set displayed in Figure 1-10 shows the new rollup row on row 38.
FiGURe 1-10 Sample GROUPING SETS with a ROLLUP result set
Using the HAVING Clause
Although you can still use WHERE clauses to limit the result set based on values that exist in the columns specified in the FROM clause, the HAVING clause allows you to filter based on the results of the calculations performed by the aggregate functions. The following query uses a HAVING clause that returns only product subcategories where the minimum price is greater than $200:
SELECT Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID , Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID , AVG(Listprice) AS 'Average' , MIN(Listprice) AS 'Minimum' , MAX(Listprice) AS 'Maximum'
Data Retrieval
FROM Production.Product JOIN Production.ProductSubcategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductSubcategoryID = Production.Product.ProductSubcategoryID JOIN Production.ProductCategory ON Production.ProductSubcategory.ProductCategoryID = Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID WHERE ListPrice <> 0 GROUP BY Production.ProductCategory.ProductCategoryID, Product.ProductSubcategoryID WITH ROLLUP HAVING MIN(ListPrice) > 200;
The result set for this query is shown in Figure 1-11.
FiGURe 1-11 Results with the HAVING clause added
Pr actice
implementing aggregate Queries
In this practice session, you create aggregate queries that progress from returning the results of a system aggregate function to returning aggregates grouped by a variety of columns and including GROUPING SETS.
e xercise
Use the GROUP BY Statement
In this exercise, you use aggregate functions and the GROUP BY clause with a variety of operators, such as ROLLUP and HAVING, that provide summary and detail information in the result set.
1. 2.
Open a new query window in SSMS. In the existing query window, type and execute the following code to return the grand total of all products ordered on all lines of all sales orders:
USE AdventureWorks2008; SELECT SUM(LineTotal) FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail;
Lesson 3: Implementing Aggregate Queries
In the existing query window, below the existing code, type, highlight, and execute the following code to return the total list price for each combination of sales order IDs and product IDs. Then, review the result set.
SELECT SalesOrderID, ProductID, SUM(Linetotal) AS 'Total' FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail GROUP BY SalesOrderID, ProductID ORDER BY SalesOrderID;
In the existing query window, below the existing code, type, highlight, and execute the following code to provide a grand total, as well as a subtotal of all products on each sales order. Then, review the result set:
SELECT SalesOrderID, ProductID, SUM(Linetotal) AS 'Total' FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail GROUP BY SalesOrderID, ProductID WITH ROLLUP ORDER BY SalesOrderID;
In the existing query window, below the existing code, type, highlight, and execute the following code to reverse the order of the columns listed in the GROUP BY clause and provide the subtotal of each product across all sales orders and a grand total. The sort order has been changed to make the results easier to review. After executing the query, review the result set:
SELECT SalesOrderID, ProductID, SUM(Linetotal) AS 'Total' FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail GROUP BY ProductID, SalesOrderID WITH ROLLUP ORDER BY ProductID;
In the existing query window, below the existing code, type, highlight, and execute the following code to provide subtotal information on both the sales order IDs and the product IDs. Review the result set:
SELECT SalesOrderID, ProductID, SUM(Linetotal) AS 'Total' FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail GROUP BY ProductID, SalesOrderID WITH CUBE ORDER BY SalesOrderID, ProductID;
In the existing query window, below the existing code, type, highlight, and execute the following code to limit the result set to line totals that exceed 10,000. Review the results:
SELECT SalesOrderID, ProductID, SUM(Linetotal) AS 'Total' FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail GROUP BY ProductID, SalesOrderID
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