how to generate barcode in c# Using the EXCEPT and INTERSECT Commands in Visual C#.NET

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Using the EXCEPT and INTERSECT Commands
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Unlike the UNION operator, which returns a combination of the rows from various SELECT statements, the EXCEPT and INTERSECT operators compare the result sets from two separate queries and provide a subset of the information. The EXCEPT operator returns all rows that exist in the table to the left of the operator and that do not have matching rows in the table to the right. In the following example from the AdventureWorksDW2008 database, employees who have never placed a reseller sales order are listed in the result set:
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SELECT EmployeeKey FROM DimEmployee EXCEPT SELECT EmployeeKey FROM FactResellerSales
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Lesson 4: Combining Datasets
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Like the UNION statement, the same number of columns with compatible data types must be defined in both queries. To accomplish this, you can join the tables and use the EXCEPT operator. The following sample adds an employee s name and title to the query listed in the previous sample:
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SELECT EmployeeKey, FirstName, LastName, Title FROM DimEmployee EXCEPT SELECT FRS.EmployeeKey, DE.FirstName, DE.LastName, DE.Title FROM FactResellerSales FRS JOIN DimEmployee DE ON DE.EmployeeKey = FRS.EmployeeKey ORDER BY Title;
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On the other hand, if we want to see only employees who have placed orders for reseller sales, we can use the INTERSECT command, as shown in this sample:
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SELECT EmployeeKey, FirstName, LastName, Title FROM DimEmployee INTERSECT SELECT FRS.EmployeeKey, DE.FirstName, DE.LastName, DE.Title FROM FactResellerSales FRS JOIN DimEmployee DE ON DE.EmployeeKey = FRS.EmployeeKey ORDER BY Title;
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Using the APPLY Operator
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The APPLY operator is different from the other operators discussed so far because it uses the results from a query to a table or view as what is called the left input, and the results of a table-valued function as what is called the right input. The APPLY operator has two forms, CROSS APPLY and OUTER APPLY. CROSS APPLY returns only rows from the left output, which produces data from the table-valued function. The OUTER APPLY returns all rows from the left, outer table. Like an OUTER JOIN statement, NULL values are included for the columns where the function does not produce data. This sample returns the first name, last name, job title, type of contact entry, and e-mail address for all contacts in the database by combining the results from the Person.EmailAddress table with the ufnGetContactInformation UDF. The BusinessEntityID value from each row in the table result set is the input required by the ufnGetContactInformation function:
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SELECT GCI.FirstName, GCI.LastName , GCI.JobTitle, GCI.BusinessEntityType , PE.EmailAddress FROM Person.EmailAddress AS PE CROSS APPLY dbo.ufnGetContactInformation(PE.BusinessEntityID) AS GCI;
Data Retrieval
note
LOnG-RUnninG QUeRY
Please note that this query may take a long time to run.
In the previous sample, the query returns 19,683 rows. When CROSS APPLY is replaced with OUTER APPLY, all 19,972 rows in the EmailAddress table are returned, even though some of them do not have data returned by the function. Figure 1-12 shows the result set of the OUTER APPLY displaying NULL in all columns returned by the function.
FiGURe 1-12 OUTER APPLY results
Pr actice
combining Data Sets
In this practice session, you use the UNION, EXCEPT, and INTERSECT operators in the AdventureWorks2008 and AdventureWorksDW2008 databases.
e xercise 1
Use the UNION Operator
In this exercise, you combine the result sets from the FactInternetSales and the FactResellerSales tables in the AdventureWorksDW2008 database.
1. 2.
Open a new query window in SSMS. In the existing query window, type and execute the following command to display all orders from both the reseller and Internet sales fact tables. Because the Internet sales fact table does not have a column that would correlate with the reseller name from the reseller sales table, a string literal of N/A is included to respond to the requirement of the command when both SELECT statements have the same number of columns. In addition, the reseller name is retrieved from the DimReseller table:
USE AdventureWorksDW2008; SELECT SalesOrderNumber, SalesOrderLineNumber , SalesAmount, TaxAmt, 'N/A' FROM FactInternetSales UNION ALL
Lesson 4: Combining Datasets
SELECT SalesOrderNumber, SalesOrderLineNumber , SalesAmount, TaxAmt, ResellerName FROM FactResellerSales JOIN DimReseller ON DimReseller.ResellerKey = FactResellerSales.ResellerKey ORDER BY SalesOrderNumber;
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