qr code generator c# Lesson 2: Enhancing DML Functionality with the OUTPUT Clause and MERGE Statement in Visual C#.NET

Making QR Code 2d barcode in Visual C#.NET Lesson 2: Enhancing DML Functionality with the OUTPUT Clause and MERGE Statement

Lesson 2: Enhancing DML Functionality with the OUTPUT Clause and MERGE Statement
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The final scenario is for a company that would like to see the before and after state of the CategoryName column whenever updates are made to this column. This information, along with the modification date and the login ID for the employee that made each change, is gathered in a table named CategoryChanges. The following command adds information to a CategoryChanges table that includes the following columns: ChangeID, CategoryID, OldCategoryName, NewCategoryName, ModifiedDate, and LoginID. The command also modifies a category name and adds a row to the CategoryChanges table:
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UPDATE Categories SET CategoryName = 'Dried Produce' OUTPUT inserted.CategoryID, deleted.CategoryName , inserted.CategoryName, getdate(), SUSER_SNAME() INTO CategoryChanges WHERE CategoryID = 7;
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Using the MERGE Statement
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The MERGE statement, along with change data capture (CDC), which were both introduced in SQL Server 2008, greatly enhance the functionality for data warehouses and staging databases. The MERGE statement gives you the ability to compare rows in a source and destination table. You can then define the appropriate INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE command to be performed based on the results of the comparison.
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For more information about CDC, see 9, An Introduction to Microsoft SQL Server Manageability Features.
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MERGE Statement Syntax
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The syntax of the MERGE statement is as follows:
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[ WITH <common_table_expression> [,...n] ] MERGE [ TOP ( expression ) [ PERCENT ] ] [ INTO ] target_table [ WITH ( <merge_hint> ) ] [ [ AS ] table_alias ] USING <table_source> ON <merge_search_condition> [ WHEN MATCHED [ AND <clause_search_condition> ] THEN <merge_matched> ] [ WHEN NOT MATCHED [ BY TARGET ] [ AND <clause_search_condition> ] THEN <merge_not_matched> ] [ WHEN NOT MATCHED BY SOURCE [ AND <clause_search_condition> ] THEN <merge_matched> ] [ <output_clause> ] [ OPTION ( <query_hint> [ ,...n ] ) ] ;
Modifying Data The INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and MERGE Statements
The following options can be defined as part of the MERGE statement syntax:
[INTO] <target_table> Defines the table or view where the rows returned by the WHEN clauses will be inserted, updated, or deleted. This table or view is also used to match data against rows in the <table_source> based on the <clause_search_ condition>. If the <target_table> is a view, all conditions for updating a view must be met for the MERGE statement to succeed. [AS] table_alias Defines an alias that can be used to minimize typing or make a command more readable by shortening table names referenced multiple times within the command. USING <table_source> Defines the table, view, or expression from which the rows that are matched to the target table come. ON <merge_search_condition> Specifies the conditions that should be used to define whether the rows in the two tables match. Similar to the ON clause in a JOIN operation, this could simply be <table1_id> = <table2_id>.
Defines the action to be performed on the rows in the target table where a match exists between the source and target rows based on the ON <merge_search_condition> clause and any additional conditions specified as part of the WHEN MATCHED THEN <merge_matched> clause. For an UPDATE to succeed, the source row must match only one target row. A single MERGE statement can have up to two WHEN MATCHED clauses joined by an AND operator. When two WHEN MATCHED clauses are defined, one must perform an UPDATE and one a DELETE. In addition, the second WHEN MATCHED clause is performed only where the first is not. For example, assume the target table includes only rows for products that are in stock. It does not include rows for products with 0 or negative inventory. The source table includes stock inventory changes and additions and subtractions from stock (represented as positive and negative integers). The first WHEN MATCHED clause includes a condition of adding the quantities of matched rows and then verifying if they are greater than 0. If yes, the quantity in the target table is set to the sum of the source quantity and the target quantity. The second WHEN MATCHED clause has a condition of the sum being less than or equal to 0 and if that is so, it deletes the row from the target table.
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