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Exact Numeric Types
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The exact numeric types are made up of integer (or whole number) types and fixed decimal point types. All exact numeric types always produce the same result, regardless of which kind of processor architecture is being used or the magnitude of the numbers (that is, how large the numbers are). Table 3-1 lists the available exact numeric data types.
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tabLe 3-1 Exact Numeric Data Types
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Equal to the byte data type in most programming languages, cannot store negative values A signed 16-bit integer
smallint
2 bytes
32768 to 32767
Tables, Data Types, and Declarative Data Integrity
Data tYPe
StORaGe Size
POSSibLe vaLUeS
cOMMentS
int bigint decimal (precision, scale) numeric (precision, scale)
4 bytes 8 bytes 5 to 17 bytes depending on precision
2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 2E63 to 2E63 1 10E38 + 1 to 10E38 1
A signed 32-bit integer A signed 64-bit integer A decimal number containing up to 38 digits
Functionally equivalent to the decimal data type
While the integer data types (tinyint, smallint, int and bigint) don t accept any parameters, the decimal (and numeric) data types do. When using the decimal data type, you can specify the precision and scale of values stored using the data type. The precision defines the total number of digits that the data type holds, supporting a maximum precision of 38 and the scale defines how many of the digits defined by the precision are used as decimals. A decimal defined as decimal(38,0) allows only for whole numbers and a decimal defined as decimal(38, 38) allows only for decimals. If you define a column as just decimal, without specifying precision and scale, it gets the default precision of 18 and scale of 0. Depending on the precision that you specify, the decimal data type requires between 5 and 17 bytes of storage. It is important that you choose the lowest appropriate precision to conserve storage space, as well as memory resources. In Table 3-2, the storage required by the different precisions are listed. Note that the scale selected has no effect on storage requirements.
tabLe 3-2 Decimal Storage Requirements
PReciSiOn
StORaGe
1 to 9 10 to 19 20 to 28 29 to 38
5 bytes 9 bytes 13 bytes 17 bytes
Approximate Numeric Types
SQL Server supports two data types with floating point or approximate numeric values, float and real. Like the decimal data type described previously, the float data type accepts a parameter. The parameter supplied to the float data type defines the number of bits that are used to store the mantissa of the floating point number, as shown in Table 3-3. Any parameter value less than or equal to 24 is interpreted as 24, and anything above 24 is interpreted as 53. This means that the mantissa is either 24 or 53 bits, depending on what value you supply to the float parameter.
Lesson 1: Working with Tables and Data Types
tabLe 3-3 Approximate Numeric Data Types
Data tYPe
StORaGe Size
POSSibLe vaLUeS
float (n <= 24) float (24 > n <= 53) real
4 bytes 8 bytes
3.40E38 to 1.18E-38, 0 and 1.18E-38 to 3.40E38 1.79E308 to 2.23E-308, 0 and 2.23E-308 to 1.79E308
Functionally equivalent to float(24)
Handling Date and Time
Table 3-4 lists the data types that can hold date and time values in SQL Server 2008.
tabLe 3-4 Date and Time Data Types
Data tYPe
StORaGe Size
POSSibLe vaLUeS
cOMMentS
datetime
8 bytes
January 1, 1753, through December 31, 9999, with time accuracy down to every third millisecond. January 1, 1900, through June 6, 2079, with time accuracy down to every minute. January 1, 0001, through December 31, 9999, with time accuracy down to the specified fractional seconds precision. January 1, 0001, through December 31, 9999, with time accuracy down to the specified fractional seconds precision and time zone offset between 14:00 and +14:00.
Mainly available for backwards compatibility. Use datetime2, date, time, or datetimeoffset whenever possible. Mainly available for backwards compatibility. Use datetime2, date, time, or datetimeoffset whenever possible. Use when both date and time are required and time zone offset is not required.
smalldatetime
4 bytes
datetime2 (fractional seconds precision)
Between 6 and 8 bytes
datetimeoffset (fractional seconds precision)
Between 8 and 10 bytes
Use when date, time, and time zone offset are required.
Tables, Data Types, and Declarative Data Integrity
Data tYPe
StORaGe Size
POSSibLe vaLUeS
cOMMentS
date
3 bytes
January 1, 0001, through December 31, 9999. 00:00:00 to 23:59:59, with accuracy down to the specified fraction of a second.
Use when only a date is required. Use when only a time is required.
time (fractional seconds precision)
Between 3 and 5 bytes.
One of the most anticipated features of SQL Server 2008 was the introduction of new date and time data types. Before SQL Server 2008, the software had two data types for managing date and time: datetime and smalldatetime. Because both of these data types are still in use in SQL Server 2008 today and it will take a long time before all databases that are upgraded to SQL Server 2008 are converted to the new date and time data types, it is very important to understand how to use the smalldatetime and datetime data types. There are two major problems with the datetime data type. The first problem is that the date and time are stored together, which may not always be desirable. Take the following query, where you want to retrieve all orders made on August 18, 2008:
SELECT SalesOrderID ,CustomerId ,OrderDate FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader WHERE OrderDate = '20080818';
This query returns only orders made on August 18, 2008, at exactly 00:00:00. To solve this problem, you must handle the time portion of the datetime data type correctly in the query. Doing this brings us to the second problem with the datetime data type, which is the precision of the time portion of the data type. The smallest time unit that is supported is every third millisecond (for smalldatetime, it is every minute). This means that the last digit in a datetime instance (that is, yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss.xxx) can be only 0, 4, or 7. This in turn means that the last supported datetime time of day is 23:59:59.997. The time 23:59:59.998 rounds down to 23:59:59.997, and the time 23:59:59:999 rounds up to the next day at 00:00:00.000. This behavior is extremely important to remember when working with the datetime data type. Continuing with the example of querying the Sales.SalesOrderHeader table for all orders of August 18, 2008, you have to use either one of the following two queries to get the desired result:
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