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Query Substitution
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When a nonmaterialized view is referenced, SQL Server replaces the name of the view with the actual SELECT statement defined by the view, rewrites the query as if you had not referenced the view at all, and then submits the rewritten query to the optimizer. You might have a view with the following definition:
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CREATE VIEW Customers.CustomerOrders AS SELECT CASE WHEN a.CompanyName IS NOT NULL THEN a.CompanyName ELSE a.FirstName + ' ' + a.LastName END CustomerName, b.AddressLine1, b.AddressLine2, b.AddressLine3, b.City, d.StateProvinceAbbrev, e.CountryName, c.OrderDate, c.GrandTotal, c.FinalShipDate FROM Customers.Customer a INNER JOIN Customers.CustomerAddress b ON a.CustomerID = b.CustomerID INNER JOIN Orders.OrderHeader c ON a.CustomerID = c.CustomerID INNER JOIN LookupTables.StateProvince d ON b.StateProvinceID = d.StateProvinceID INNER JOIN LookupTables.Country e ON b.CountryID = e.CountryID GO
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You might then issue the following SELECT statement:
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SELECT CustomerName, AddressLine1, AddressLine2, AddressLine3, City, StateProvinceAbbrev, CountryName, OrderDate, GrandTotal, FinalShipDate FROM Customers.CustomerOrders GO
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But SQL Server actually submits the following query to the optimizer:
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SELECT CASE WHEN a.CompanyName IS NOT NULL THEN a.CompanyName ELSE a.FirstName + ' ' + a.LastName END CustomerName, b.AddressLine1, b.AddressLine2, b.AddressLine3, b.City, d.StateProvinceAbbrev, e.CountryName, c.OrderDate, c.GrandTotal, c.FinalShipDate
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Lesson 4: Views
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FROM Customers.Customer a INNER JOIN Customers.CustomerAddress b ON a.CustomerID = b.CustomerID INNER JOIN Orders.OrderHeader c ON a.CustomerID = c.CustomerID INNER JOIN LookupTables.StateProvince d ON b.StateProvinceID = d.StateProvinceID INNER JOIN LookupTables.Country e ON b.CountryID = e.CountryID GO
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When an index is created against a view, the data is materialized. Queries that reference the indexed view do not substitute the definition of the view but instead return the results directly from the indexed view. The results can be returned directly because in terms of storage, the indexed view is in fact a table that the storage engine maintains. In SQL Server Enterprise Edition, query substitution goes one step further when an indexed view is present. Normally, the optimizer selects indexes created against tables referenced within a query if it determines that a given index improves query performance. In SQL Server Enterprise Edition, if the optimizer determines that the data can be retrieved more efficiently through the indexed view, it then builds a query plan that ignores the base tables referenced by the query and instead retrieves data from the indexed view instead of the tables.
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exaM tiP
For the exam, you should understand how SQL Server treats views and indexed views in each edition.
Quick check
1. What types of views can be created 2. What types of indexes can be created on a view
Quick check answers
1. You can create a regular view that is just a stored SELECT statement. You can also
create a partitioned view that uses the UNION ALL keywords to combine multiple member tables.
2. You can index a view by creating a unique, clustered index.
Pr actice
creating views
In this practice, you create an updatable view to return the orders that have not yet shipped.
e xercise 1
Create a View
In this exercise, you create a view to return the orders that have not yet shipped.
Programming Microsoft SQL Server with T-SQL User-Defined Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and Views
Modify an order to have an unshipped state by typing and executing the following code in a new query window:
UPDATE Sales.SalesOrderHeader SET ShipDate = NULL WHERE SalesOrderID = 75123 GO
In the existing query window, type, highlight, and execute the following code to create the view:
CREATE VIEW Sales.v_UnshippedOrders AS SELECT SalesOrderID, RevisionNumber, OrderDate, DueDate, ShipDate, Status, OnlineOrderFlag, SalesOrderNumber, PurchaseOrderNumber, AccountNumber, CustomerID, SalesPersonID, TerritoryID, BillToAddressID, ShipToAddressID, ShipMethodID, CreditCardID, CreditCardApprovalCode, CurrencyRateID, SubTotal, TaxAmt, Freight, TotalDue, Comment, rowguid, ModifiedDate FROM Sales.SalesOrderHeader WHERE ShipDate IS NULL GO
In the existing query window, type, highlight, and execute the following code to test the view and then reset the order you modified:
SELECT * FROM Sales.v_UnshippedOrders GO
UPDATE Sales.SalesOrderHeader SET ShipDate = '08/07/2004' WHERE SalesOrderID = 75123 GO
Lesson Summary
n n n
A view is a name for a SELECT statement stored within a database. A view has to return a single result set and cannot reference variables or temporary tables. You can update data through a view so long as the data modification can be resolved to a specific set of rows in an underlying table. If a view does not meet the requirements for allowing data modifications, you can create an INSTEAD OF trigger to process the data modification instead. You can combine multiple tables that have been physically partitioned using a UNION ALL statement to create a partitioned view. A distributed partitioned view uses linked servers to combine multiple member tables across SQL Server instances. You can create a unique, clustered index on a view to materialize the result set for improved query performance.
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