Lesson 1: Understanding and Installing AD LDS in .NET

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Lesson 1: Understanding and Installing AD LDS
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Table 14-1 Comparing LDAP Directories to Relational Databases
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LDAP Directories Security is applied at the object level.
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Relational Databases Security is applied at the row or column level.
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Because the database is distributed, data consis- Because data input is transactional, data consistency is not absolute at least not until replica- tency is absolute and guaranteed at all times. tion passes are complete. Records are not locked and can be modified by Records are locked and can be modified by only two parties at once. Conflicts are managed one party at a time. through update sequence numbers (USNs).
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Table 14-1 provides guidelines for selection of the right database for an application. In addition, AD LDS is based on AD DS, but it does not include all the features of AD DS. Table 14-2 outlines the differences in features between AD LDS and AD DS.
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Table 14-2 Comparing AD LDS with AD DS
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Feature Includes more than one instance on a server. Includes independent schemas for each instance. Runs on client operating systems such as Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 member servers. Runs on domain controllers. Directory partitions can rely on X.500 naming conventions. Can be installed or removed without a reboot. Service can be stopped or started without reboot. Supports Group Policy. Includes a global catalog. Manages objects such as workstations, member servers, and domain controllers. Supports trusts between domains and forests. Supports and integrates with public key infrastructures (PKIs) and X.509 certificates. Supports DNS service (SRV) records for locating directory services. Supports LDAP application programming interfaces (APIs). Supports Active Directory Services Interface (ADSI) API. Supports the Messaging API (MAPI). Supports object-level security and delegation of administration.
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AD DS
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14
Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
Table 14-2 Comparing AD LDS with AD DS
Feature Relies on multimaster replication for data consistency. Supports schema extensions and application directory partitions. Can install a replica from removable media. Can include security principals to provide access to a Windows Server network. Can include security principals to provide access to applications and Web Services. Is integrated into the Windows Server 2008 backup tools.
AD LDS
AD DS
As you can see from the contents of Table 14-2, there are several similarities and differences between AD LDS and AD DS. For example, it is easy to see why Exchange Server must integrate with AD DS as opposed to relying on AD LDS because Exchange Server requires access to the global catalog service to run. Without it, e-mail users could not look up recipients. Because AD LDS does not support the global catalog, Exchange Server cannot rely on it. However, Exchange Server is an application that requires access to directory data in each site of the domain or forest. As such, it also relies on your domain controller positioning to ensure that each user can properly address e-mails. AD LDS, however, provides much of the same functionality as AD DS. For example, you can create instances with replicas distributed in various locations in your network, just as with the location of domain controllers, and then use multimaster replication to ensure data consistency. In short, AD LDS is a lightweight, portable, and more malleable version of the directory service offered by AD DS.
AD LDS Scenarios
Now that you have a better understanding of AD LDS and its feature set, you can begin to identify scenarios in which you would need to work with this technology. Consider these scenarios when you decide whether to rely on AD LDS or AD DS.
When your applications need to rely on an LDAP directory, consider using AD LDS instead of AD DS. AD LDS can often be hosted on the same server as the application, providing high-speed and local access to directory data. This would reduce replication traffic because all required data is local. In addition, you can bundle the AD LDS instance with the application when you deploy it. For example, if you have a human resources application that must rely on custom policies to ensure that users can access only specific content when their user object contains a set of particular attributes, you can store these attributes and policies within AD LDS.
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