vb.net gs1 128 Active Directory Certificate Services and Public Key Infrastructures in Visual Studio .NET

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Active Directory Certificate Services and Public Key Infrastructures
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networks. However, when you extend your organization s authority beyond your network boundaries with AD CS, you should rely on a third-party commercial certificate authority (CA) to support the claims you establish through the certificates you publish. (See Figure 15-1.)
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Identity
s 1 to 13
Trust
15 AD CS
Integrity
16 AD RMS
External Commercial Root CA
Chain of Trust
Clients Legend Active Directory technology integration Possible relationships Clients
Figure 15-1 Active Directory Certificate Services can provide services both inside and outside your network
For example, when you go to a Web site using the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTPS) that contains an SSL certificate, this certificate proves to you that you really are where you intend to be. When you verify the certificate, you see that it includes the server name, the organization name, and the issuing certificate authority. The certificate works with your browser
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Active Directory Certificate Services and Public Key Infrastructures
because browsers such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Firefox already include a list of trusted commercial CAs that manage the certification process as a business. (See Figure 15-2.)
Figure 15-2 Browsers such as Internet Explorer and Firefox listing trusted CAs
The trusted CAs list is automatically updated through the update mechanisms for your selected operating system. In Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, this update is controlled through a Group Policy setting that is turned on by default. In earlier Windows operating systems, the update of Trusted Root Certificates was a component of Windows, accessed through Control Panel.
MORE INFO
Certificate support in Windows Vista
For more information on Windows Vista certificate support, go to http://technet2.microsoft.com /WindowsVista/en/library/5b350eae-8b08-4f2c-a09e-a17b1c93f3d01033.mspx mfr=true. For a list of Trusted Root Certificates in Windows, go to http://support.microsoft.com/kb/931125.
When you issue your own certificates certificates that do not originate from external CAs you must include your own organization as a trusted CA on the computers of the people who will be using these certificates. You can do this when you work with the users of your own organization because you control their computers, but when the users are people whose computers you do not control, this becomes problematic. Asking them to accept your certificate is like asking them to trust you when they don t know you. This is one reason PKI architectures are built the way they are. Essentially, each member of a public key infrastructure is chained together in a hierarchy that ends at the topmost CA. This
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Active Directory Certificate Services and Public Key Infrastructures
CA is ultimately responsible for each of the certificates included in the chain. For example, if you obtain a certificate from your organization and your organization obtained its master certificate from a trusted commercial CA (as shown in Figure 15-3), your certificate will automatically be trusted because each browser already trusts the commercial CA. As you can imagine, this external CA must use a stringent validation program; otherwise, that certificate provider won t be in business for long.
Root Certificate Intermediary Certificate Customer Certificate
Figure 15-3 A Trusted Certificate chain
Several technologies rely on PKI certificates for operation. One very good example is Microsoft Exchange Server 2007. Because Exchange Server is divided into several roles Hub Transport, Client Access, Mailbox, and more and because it transports private information over TCP/IP connections, each server automatically generates a self-signed certificate at installation. Then, through the use of these certificates, e-mail is transported over secure connections. This works well for internal communications, but as soon as you open the doors to communicate with the outside world, for example, providing Microsoft Outlook Web Access (OWA) to employees outside your internal network, you must replace the self-signed certificate with one purchased from a valid vendor. Otherwise, none of your users will be able to access OWA from external Internet locations.
MORE INFO
Learn about Exchange Server 2007
For more information on Exchange Server 2007 and its inner workings, look up MCITP Self-Paced Training Kit (Exam 70-238): Deploying Messaging Solutions with Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 by Ruest and Ruest (Microsoft Press, 2008).
Before You Begin
In some cases, implementing an internal-only PKI makes sense because you are proving who you are only to yourself, but it becomes more difficult and even redundant when dealing with the Internet. How can you prove to others you are who you claim to be when you are the only one saying so If you are the one who issues the certificates that you use for e-commerce, no one will trust you. You must always keep this in mind whenever you are considering the use of AD CS.
Exam objectives in this chapter:
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