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What Are Generics
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Generics are part of the .NET Framework s type system that allows you to define a type while leaving some details unspecified. Instead of specifying the types of parameters or member classes, you can allow code that uses your type to specify it. This allows consumer code to tailor your type to its own specific needs.
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Generic types are new in .NET 2.0, and you will probably see an unusually large number of questions about generics on the exam.
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The .NET Framework version 2.0 includes several generic classes in the System.Collections.Generic namespace, including Dictionary, Queue, SortedDictionary, and SortedList. These classes work similarly to their nongeneric counterparts in System.Collections, but they offer improved performance and type safety.
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Generic collections
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The .NET Framework version 2.0 includes the System.Collections.Generic namespace, which provides built-in collections that offer improved performance over standard collections. For more information, refer to 4, Collections and Generics.
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Lesson 3: Constructing Classes
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Why Use Generics
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Versions 1.0 and 1.1 of the .NET Framework did not support generics. Instead, developers used the Object class for parameters and members and would cast other classes to and from the Object class. Generics offer two significant advantages over using the Object class:
Reduced run-time errors The compiler cannot detect type errors when you cast
to and from the Object class. For example, if you cast a string to an Object class and then attempt to cast that Object to an integer, the compiler will not catch the error. Instead, the runtime will throw an exception. Using generics allows the compiler to catch this type of bug before your program runs. Additionally, you can specify constraints to limit the classes used in a generic, enabling the compiler to detect an incompatible type.
Improved performance Casting requires boxing and unboxing (explained later
in Lesson 4, Converting Between Types ), which steals processor time and slows performance. Using generics doesn t require casting or boxing, which improves run-time performance.
Real World
Tony Northrup I haven t been able to reproduce the performance benefits of generics; however, according to Microsoft, generics are faster than using casting. In practice, casting proved to be several times faster than using a generic. However, you probably won t notice performance differences in your applications. (My tests over 100,000 iterations took only a few seconds.) So you should still use generics because they are type-safe.
How to Create a Generic Type
First, examine the following classes. Classes Obj and Gen perform exactly the same tasks, but Obj uses the Object class to enable any type to be passed, while Gen uses generics:
' VB Class Obj Public V1 As Object Public V2 As Object
1
Framework Fundamentals
Public Sub New(ByVal _V1 As Object, ByVal _V2 As Object) V1 = _V1 V2 = _V2 End Sub End Class Class Gen(Of T, U) Public V1 As T Public V2 As U Public Sub New(ByVal _V1 As T, ByVal _V2 As U) V1 = _V1 V2 = _V2 End Sub End Class // C# class Obj { public Object t; public Object u; public Obj(Object _t, Object _u) { t = _t; u = _u; } } class Gen<T, U> { public T t; public U u; public Gen(T _t, U _u) { t = _t; u = _u; } }
As you can see, the Obj class has two members of type Object. The Gen class has two members of type T and U. The consuming code will determine the types for T and U. Depending on how the consuming code uses the Gen class, T and U could be a string, an int, a custom class, or any combination thereof. There is a significant limitation to creating a generic class: generic code is valid only if it will compile for every possible constructed instance of the generic, whether an Int, a string, or any other class. Essentially, you are limited to the capabilities of the base Object class when writing generic code. Therefore, you could call the ToString or
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