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WindowsPrincipal Class
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The System.Security.Principal.WindowsPrincipal class provides access to a user s group memberships. This class must be created by using an instance of the WindowsIdentity class. For example, the following code creates a WindowsIdentity object named currentIdentity that represents the current user, and then it creates a WindowsPrincipal object named currentPrincipal that represents the current user by creating the object using an existing WindowsIdentity object:
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' VB Dim currentIdentity As WindowsIdentity = WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent() Dim currentPrincipal As WindowsPrincipal = _ New WindowsPrincipal(currentIdentity) // C# WindowsIdentity currentIdentity = WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent(); WindowsPrincipal currentPrincipal = new WindowsPrincipal(currentIdentity);
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As an alternative to creating a WindowsIdentity object using the WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent method, you can extract the current WindowsPrincipal object by querying the current thread directly. To do this, first set the current principal policy to use Windows security, and then create a new WindowsPrincipal object by casting System.Threading.Thread.CurrentPrincipal as a WindowsPrincipal object. The following code (which requires both the System.Security.Principal and System.Threading namespaces) demonstrates this:
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' VB ' Specify that WindowsPrincipal should be used AppDomain.CurrentDomain.SetPrincipalPolicy(PrincipalPolicy.WindowsPrincipal)
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Lesson 1: Authenticating and Authorizing Users
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' Cast the current principal as a WindowsPrincipal object Dim currentPrincipal As WindowsPrincipal = _ CType(Thread.CurrentPrincipal, WindowsPrincipal) // C# // Specify that WindowsPrincipal should be used AppDomain.CurrentDomain.SetPrincipalPolicy(PrincipalPolicy.WindowsPrincipal); // Cast the current principal as a WindowsPrincipal object WindowsPrincipal currentPrincipal = (WindowsPrincipal)Thread.CurrentPrincipal;
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You can use the WindowsPrincipal class to determine which groups a user is a member of. To query for built-in groups, pass to the WindowsPrincipal.IsInRole method a member of the System.Security.Principal.WindowsBuiltInRole class. Each member of the WindowsBuiltInRole class represents a built-in group that exists either within the computer s local user database, or within an Active Directory domain. For example, the following portion of a console application checks three separate members of the WindowsBuiltInRole class and displays whether the current local user is a member:
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' VB ' Create a WindowsIdentity object representing the current user Dim currentIdentity As WindowsIdentity = WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent() ' Create a WindowsPrincipal object representing the current user Dim currentPrincipal As WindowsPrincipal = _ New WindowsPrincipal(currentIdentity) Console.WriteLine("The current user is a member of the following roles: ") ' Check for three common group memberships If currentPrincipal.IsInRole(WindowsBuiltInRole.Administrator) Then Console.WriteLine(WindowsBuiltInRole.Administrator.ToString()) End If If currentPrincipal.IsInRole(WindowsBuiltInRole.PowerUser) Then Console.WriteLine(WindowsBuiltInRole.PowerUser.ToString()) End If If currentPrincipal.IsInRole(WindowsBuiltInRole.User) Then Console.WriteLine(WindowsBuiltInRole.User.ToString()) End If // C# // Create a WindowsIdentity object representing the current user WindowsIdentity currentIdentity = WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent(); // Create a WindowsPrincipal object representing the current user WindowsPrincipal currentPrincipal = new WindowsPrincipal(currentIdentity); Console.WriteLine("The current user is a member of the following roles: "); // Check for three common group memberships if (currentPrincipal.IsInRole(WindowsBuiltInRole.Administrator)) Console.WriteLine(WindowsBuiltInRole.Administrator.ToString());
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User and Data Security
if (currentPrincipal.IsInRole(WindowsBuiltInRole.PowerUser)) Console.WriteLine(WindowsBuiltInRole.PowerUser.ToString()); if (currentPrincipal.IsInRole(WindowsBuiltInRole.User)) Console.WriteLine(WindowsBuiltInRole.User.ToString());
The presence of built-in groups varies depending on the operating system and whether the computer is a domain controller, so always be prepared to catch an exception when checking user roles. To query for custom groups or groups in a domain rather than for the local user database, pass a string value to the overloaded IsInRole method in the format DOMAIN\ Group Name . For example, if you have code that should execute only if the user is a member of the CONTOSO\Accountants group, you could use the following if statement:
' VB If currentPrincipal.IsInRole("CONTOSO\Accounting") Then Console.WriteLine("User is in Accounting") End If // C# if (currentPrincipal.IsInRole(@"CONTOSO\Accounting")) Console.WriteLine("User is in Accounting");
In most circumstances, however, you will not know the computer name or domain name ahead of time to insert it into the string you pass the IsInRole method. Instead, construct it using the System.Environment.MachineName string property or the System.Environment.UserDomainName string property. System.Environment.MachineName can be used to specify group names only on the local computer. Use System.Environment.UserDomainName to specify group names that exist on the local computer or in the Active Directory domain, depending on how the user logged on.
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